Vipera ammodytes

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Vipera ammodytes
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Viperidae
Subfamily: Viperinae
Genus: Vipera
Species: V. ammodytes
Binomial name
Vipera ammodytes
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Synonyms
  • Coluber Ammodytes - Linnaeus, 1758
  • Vipera Illyrica - Laurenti, 1768
  • Vipera ammodytes - Sonnini & Latreille, 1801
  • [Vipera (Echidna)] Ammodytes - Merrem, 1820
  • Cobra ammodytes - Fitzinger, 1826
  • [Pelias] Col[uber]. ammodytes - Boie, 1827
  • Vipera (Rhinechis) Ammodytes - Fitzinger, 1843
  • V[ipera]. (Vipera) ammodytes - Jan, 1863
  • Vipera ammodytes - Eber, 1863
  • Vipera ammodytes - Boulenger, 1896
  • [Vipera ammodytes] var. steindachneri - Werner, 1897
  • Vipera ammodytes [ammodytes] - Boulenger, 1903
  • Vipera ammodytes ammodytes - Zarevsky, 1915
  • Teleovipera ammodytes - Reuss, 1927
  • Vipera ammodytes ammodytes - Mertens & Müller, 1928
  • Rhinaspis illyrica litoralis - Reuss, 1935
  • Rhinaspis illyrica velebitensis - Reuss, 1935
  • Rhinaspis illyrica f[orma]. melanura - Reuss, 1937
  • Vipera ammodytes ruffoi - Bruno, 1968
  • Vipera (Rhinaspis) ammodytes ammodytes - Obst, 1983
  • Vipera ammodytes - Golay et al., 1993[1]

Common names: horned viper, long-nosed viper, sand viper,[2] nose-horned viper,[3] horn-nosed viper.[4]  
 
Vipera ammodytes is a venomous viper species found in southern Europe through to the Balkans and parts of the Middle East. It is reputed to be the most venomous and dangerous of the European vipers due to its large size, long fangs (up to 13 mm) and high venom toxicity.[2] Five subspecies are currently recognized, including the nominate race described here.[5]

Description

Grows to a maximum length of 95 cm, although individuals usually measure less than 85 cm. Females are somewhat smaller than males. Maximum length also depends on race, with northern forms distinctly larger than southern ones.[2] According to Strugariu (2006), the average length is 50-70 cm with reports of specimens over 1 m in length. Females are usually larger and more heavily built, although the largest specimens on record are males.[4]

The head is covered in small, irregular scales that are either smooth or only weakly keeled, except for a pair of large supraocular scales that extend beyond the posterior margin of the eye. 10-13 small scaled border the eye and two rows separate the eye from the supralabials. The nasal scale is large, single (rarely divided) and separated from the rostral by a single nasorostral scale. The rostral scale is wider than it is long.[2]

The most distinctive characteristic is a single "horn" on the snout, just above the rostral scale. It consists of 9-17 scales arranged in 2 (rarely 2 or 4) transverse rows.[2] It grows to a length of about 5 mm and is actually soft and flexible. In southern subspecies, the horn sits vertically upright, while in V. a. ammodytes it points diagonally forward.[6]

The body is covered with strongly keeled dorsal scales in 21 or 23 rows (rarely 25) mid-body. The scales bordering the ventrals are smooth or weakly keeled. Males have 133-161 ventral scales and 27-46 paired subcaudals. Females have 135-164 and 24-38 respectively. The anal scale is single.[2]

The color pattern is different for males and females. In males, the head has irregular dark brown, dark gray or black markings. A thick, black stripe runs from behind the eye to behind the angle of the jaw. The tongue is usually black and the iris has a golden or coppery in color. Males have a characteristic dark blotch or V marking on the back of the head that often connects to the dorsal zigzag pattern. The ground color for males varies and includes many different shades of grey, sometimes yellowish or pinkish grey, or yellowish brown. The dorsal zigzag is dark grey or black, the edge of which is sometimes darker. A row of indistinct, dark (occasionally yellowish) spots runs along each side, sometimes joined in a wavy band.[2]

Females have a similar color pattern, except that it is less distinct and contrasting. They usually lack the dark blotch or V marking on the back of the head that the males have. Ground color is variable and tends more towards browns an bronzes, such as grayish brown, reddish brown, copper, "dirty cream", or brick red. The dorsal zigzag is a shade of brown.[2]

Both sexes have a zigzag dorsal stripe set against a lighter background. This pattern is often fragmented. The belly color varies and can be grayish, yellowish brown, or pinkish, "heavily clouded" with dark spots. Sometimes the ventral color is black or bluish gray with white flecks and inclusions edged in white. The chin is lighter in color than the belly. Underneath, the tip of the tail may be yellow, orange, orange-red, red or green. Melanism does occur, but is rare. Juveniles color patterns are about the same as the adults.[2]

Geographic range

Found in North-eastern Italy, southern Slovakia, western Hungry, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, Greece (including Macedonia and Cyclades), Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey, Georgia and Syria. The type locality is listed as "Oriente." Schwartz (1936) proposed that the type locality be restricted to "Zara" (Zadar, Coatia).[1]

Mertens & Wermuth (1960) also mention Austria as being part of the range of this species.[2]

Conservation status

This species is listed as strictly protected (Appendix II) under the Berne Convention.[7]

Habitat

The common name sand viper is misleading, as this species does not occur in really sandy areas.[8] Mainly, it inhabits dry, rocky hillsides with sparse vegetation. Not usually associated with woodlands, but if so it will be found there around the edges and in clearings. Sometimes found in areas of human habitation, such as railway embankments, farmland, and especially vineyards if rubble piles and stone walls and present. May be found above 2000 m at lower latitudes.[2]

Behavior

This species has no particular preference for its daily activity period. At higher altitudes, it is more active during the day. At lower altitudes, it may be found at any time of the day, becoming increasingly nocturnal as daytime temperatures rise.[2]

Despite its reputation, this species is generally lethargic, not at all aggressive, and tends not to bite without considerable provocation. If surprised, wild specimens may react in a number of different ways. Some remain motionless and hiss loudly, some hiss and then flee, while still others will attempt to bite immediately.[2]

V. ammodytes hibernates in the winter for a period of 2 to 6 months depending on environmental conditions.[4]

Feeding

Primarily feeds on small mammals and birds. Juveniles apparently prefer lizards. Feeding behavior is influenced by prey size. Larger prey are struck, released, tracked and swallowed, while smaller prey is swallowed without using the venom apparatus. Occasionally, other snakes are eaten.[2] There are also reports of cannibalism.[4]

Reproduction

Before mating, the males of this species will engage an a combat dance, similar to adders.[2] Mating takes place in the spring (April-May) and between one and twenty live young are born in August-October. At birth, juveniles are 14-24 cm long.[4] This species is ovoviviparous.[9]

Captivity

This species has often been kept in captivity and bred successfully.[2] It tolerates captivity much better than other European vipers, thriving in most surroundings and usually takes food easily from the start.[9] However, as far as handling is concerned, despite its relatively placid reputation, pinning and necking this snake can be risky, as they are relatively strong and can unexpectedly jerk free from a keeper's grasp. For close examinations, it is therefore advisable to use a use a clear plastic restraining tube instead.[4]

Venom

This is the largest and likely the most dangerous snake to be found in mainland Europe. In some areas it is at least a significant medical risk; in the past fatalities were relatively frequent in the Balkans because the peasants there had a habit of walking barefoot.[6]

The venom can be quite toxic, but varies over time and among different populations.[2] Brown (1973) gives an LD50 for mice of 1.2 mg/kg IV, 1.5 mg/kg IP and 2.0 mg/kg SC.[10] Novak et al. (1973) give ranges of 0.44-0.82 mg/kg and IV and 0.19-0.64 mg/kg IP. Minton (1974) states 6.6 mg/kg SC.[2]

The venom has both proteolytic and neurotoxic components and contains hemotoxins with blood coagulant properties, similar to and as powerful as in crotalid venom. Other properties include anticoagulant effects, hemoconcentration and hemorrhage. Bites promote symptoms typical of viperid envenomation, such as pain, swelling and discoloration, all of which may be immediate. There are also reports of dizziness and tingling.[2]

Humans respond rapidly to this venom, as do mice and birds. Lizards are less affected, while amphibians may even survive a bite. European snakes, such as Coronella and Natrix, are possibly immune.[2]

V. ammodytes venom is used in the production of anivenin for the bite of other European vipers and the snake is farmed for this purpose.[9][11]

Subspecies

Subspecies[5] Authority[5] Common name Geographic range
V. a. ammodytes (Linnaeus, 1758) Western sand viper[8] Austria (Styria and Carinthia), northern Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, Albania, southwestern Romania and north-west Bulgaria[2]
V. a. gregorwallneri Sochurek, 1974 Austria, the former Yugoslavia[4]
V. a. meridionalis Boulenger, 1903 Eastern sand viper[8] Greece (incl. Corfu and other islands), Turkish Thrace[2]
V. a. montandoni Boulenger, 1904 Transdanubian sand viper[8] Bulgaria, southern Romania[2]
V. a. transcaucasiana Boulenger, 1913 Transcaucasian sand viper[2] Georgia, northern Turkish Anatolia[2]

Taxonomy

This species was originally described by Linnaeus in Systema Naturae (1758). Subsequently, Boulenger described a number of subspecies in the early 20th century that are still mostly recognized today. However, there are many alternative taxonomies.[2] One additional subspecies that may be encountered in literature is V. a. ruffoi (Bruno, 1968),[2] found in the Alpine region of Italy. However, many consider both ruffoi and gregorwalineri to be synonymous with V. a. ammodytes[4] and the taxon transcaucasiana to be a separate species.[4][2][3]


References

  1. 1.0 1.1 McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 Mallow D, Ludwig D, Nilson G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Krieger Publishing Company. 359 pp. ISBN 0-89464-877-2.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Species Vipera ammodytes at the Species2000 Database
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Strugariu A. 2006. The European Horn-Nosed Viper. VenomousReptiles.org.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Vipera ammodytes (TSN 634985) at Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Accessed 12 May 2007.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Street D. 1979. The Reptiles of Northern and Central Europe. London: B.T. Batsford Ltd. 268 pp. ISBN 0-7134-1374-3.
  7. Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, Appendix II at Council of Europe. Accessed 9 October 2006.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Steward JW. 1971. The Snakes of Europe. Cranbury, New Jersey: Associated University Press (Fairleigh Dickinson University Press). 238 pp. LCCCN 77-163307. ISBN 0-8386-1023-4.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Stidworthy J. 1974. Snakes of the world. Grosset & Dunlap Inc. ISBN 0-448-11856-4.
  10. Brown JH. 1973. Toxicology and Pharmacology of Venoms from Poisonous Snakes. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas. 184 pp. LCCCN 73-229. ISBN 0-398-02808-7.
  11. Mehrtens JM. 1987. Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. 480 pp. ISBN 0-8069-6460-X.