U.S. Department of Energy
Headed by the cabinet-level U.S. Secretary of Energy, the United States Department of Energy (DoE) is the department responsible for advancing the national, economic, and energy security of the United States. It was formed in 1977 to consolidate government agencies, including the Atomic Energy Commission (later the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Energy Research and Development Administration), Federal Energy Administration, Federal Power Commission, and programs from several other agencies.
After several scandals over security lapses related to nuclear weapons, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) was established in 2000, as a "separately organized agency within the Department of Energy". NNSA is responsible for military aspects of nuclear technology, including the nuclear weapons program, naval nuclear reactors, nuclear counterproliferation, and transportation of nuclear weapons and other special nuclear materials.
Its main missions follow five themes:
- Energy Security: Promoting America’s energy security through reliable, clean, and affordable energy
- Nuclear Security: Ensuring America’s nuclear security, including U.S. nuclear program and U.S. nuclear surety
- Scientific Discovery and Innovation: Strengthening U.S. scientific discovery, economic competitiveness, and improving quality of life through innovations in science and technology
- Environmental Responsibility: Protecting the environment by providing a responsible resolution to the environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production
- Management Excellence: Enabling the mission through sound management