From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
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- Bowler, Peter J. Evolution: The History of an Idea, Berkeley: University of California Press, ch. 8.
- Hofstadter, Richard. (1959) Social Darwinism in American Thought.
- Paul, Diane, (1998) The Politics of Heredity: Essays on Eugenics, Biomedicine, and the Nature-Nurture Debate, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
- Young, Robert M. (1985) Darwin's Metaphor: Nature's Place in Victorian Culture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
- Johnson, D. Paul (2008). "The Historical Background of Social Darwinism", Contemporary Sociological Theory. Berlin: Springer