Scarborough Castle/Timelines

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A timeline (or several) relating to Scarborough Castle.

Click on dates for sections of the main article

c.900-500 BCE

Possible Iron Age settlements and hill fort

c.500 BCE

Bronze Age; sword unearthed at the Castle dates from this time

Fourth century CE

Roman signal station established

c.1000

Anglo-Saxon chapel built

1066

Possible settlement at Scarborough destroyed by Harald Hardrada using bonfire at the later Castle site

c.1157

Henry II begins building a new stone castle, possible after demolishing William's

1159

Work begins on the castle keep

1169

Keep completed

1179

William le Gros dies

1202

King John upgrades the castle with a new curtain wall; builds the 'King's Chambers'

1212

Most upgrades complete; keep roof repaired

1237

Storm damages keep roof

1243-1244

New barbican gateway building begins under the orders of Henry III

c.1250s

Governorship of Geoffrey de Neville; corruption and natural wear lead to decline of Castle

c.1270s

Governorship of William de Percy; garrison imposes illegal tolls on the townsfolk, steals pigs

1275

Edward I holds court at the Castle

1280

Edward I's second court at Scarborough Castle

1311

Edward II imprisons Scottish enemies at the Castle

1312

Piers Gaveston awarded governorship of the Castle by Edward II and besieged by barons; town's royal priviliges revoked following Gaveston's murder

1318-1635

Hundred Years War: Scarborough, a centre of the wool trade, attacked several times

1318

Castle sacked and burnt by Robert the Bruce and Sir James Douglas

1343

Barbican completed

1424-1429

Henry VI orders major repairs to the Castle

1536

Pilgrimage of Grace: Robert Aske's forces unsuccessfully try to take the Castle

April 1557

Thomas Wyatt the younger's forces take the castle disguised as peasants; Thomas Stafford executed on Tower Hill after holding the Castle for three days

1569

Castle garrisoned against a predicted Scottish invasion during the Rising of the North; attack never comes

1642-1651

English Civil War: castle garrison sides with the Royalists

March 1643

Castle garrison led by Sir Hugh Cholmley; briefly loses the Castle to his cousin, Captain Browne Bushell

August 1644

Parliamentary forces reach Scarborough following Royalist defeat at Marston Moor and the fall of York; Cholmley stalls with surrender negotiations

18th February 1645

First siege of the Castle by Parliamentary forces begins

1st May 1645

Parliamentarians' Committee of Both Kingdoms orders that the Castle be taken at all costs

25th July 1645

Castle garrison surrenders following five-month siege that sees the keep partially destroyed

27th July 1648

New castle garrison goes over to the Royalist side

19th December 1648

Second siege brings Castle back under Parliamentary control; later used as a prison

April 1665 - September 1666

Imprisonment of George Fox, founder of the Quakers

1745-1746

Castle refortified during the Jacobite Rebellion; keep used to store gunpowder

1748

Master Gunner's House built as accommodation

1779

Scarborians watch a sea battle from Castle Hill between American and British ships during the American Revolutionary War

1796

French prisoners held at the Castle during the Napoleonic Wars; permanent garrison stationed at the castle until the mid-nineteenth century

16th December 1914

Keep damaged by German warships during the Bombardment of Scarborough, Whitby and Hartlepool; barracks later demolished due to damage from shelling

1920

Castle taken into public ownership by the Ministry of Works

1980

Bronze Age sword unearthed from the site; this can be seen in the Castle's exhibition

1984

English Heritage awarded the site