São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe is a republic located 200 kilometres off the west coast of Gabon, in the Gulf of Guinea. It comprises the main islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, and several smaller islands including Pedras Tinhosas and Rolas. The uninhabited islands, that form part of the Cameroon line of former volcanoes, were discovered in 1471 by Portuguese explorers João de Santarém and Pêro Escobar, and were administered as a colony of Portugal in 1522. Sugar, cocoa, and coffee were introduced and became principal crops of the island's economy. São Tomé and Príncipe was organized as an overseas province of Portugal in 1951, and declared itself an independent sovereign state in 1975. The capital and largest city is São Tomé. The population of São Tomé and Príncipe at the 2012 census was 187,356.