Reformation

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The Reformation was a major religious revolution in Western Europe in the 16th century, led by Martin Luther and John Calvin and other Protestants. The self-described "reformers" (who "protested") objected to the doctrines, rituals and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, and created new national Protestant churches. The Catholics responded with a Counter Reformation, led by the Jesuit order, which reclaimed large parts of Europe, such as Poland. In general, northern Europe became Protestant, and southern Europe stayed Catholic, while fierce battles that turned into warfare took place in the center.