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In medicine, pyelonephritis is a form of urinary tract infection that is "inflammation of the kidney involving the renal parenchyma (the nephrons); kidney pelvis; and kidney calices. It is characterized by abdominal pain; fever; nausea; vomiting; and occasionally diarrhea."[1]


Antibiotics may be given by mouth or intravenously for adults[2] or children[3].

In children, 3 versus 8 days of intravenous antibiotics had similar outcomes.[4]


About 15% of patients persist with fever after 48 hours of antibiotics.[5]


  1. Anonymous (2015), Pyelonephritis (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  2. Pohl A (2007). "Modes of administration of antibiotics for symptomatic severe urinary tract infections". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD003237. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD003237.pub2. PMID 17943784. Research Blogging.
  3. Montini G, Toffolo A, Zucchetta P, et al (August 2007). "Antibiotic treatment for pyelonephritis in children: multicentre randomised controlled non-inferiority trial". BMJ 335 (7616): 386. DOI:10.1136/bmj.39244.692442.55. PMID 17611232. PMC 1955287. Research Blogging.
  4. Bouissou F, Munzer C, Decramer S, et al (March 2008). "Prospective, randomized trial comparing short and long intravenous antibiotic treatment of acute pyelonephritis in children: dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphic evaluation at 9 months". Pediatrics 121 (3): e553–60. DOI:10.1542/peds.2006-3632. PMID 18267977. Research Blogging.
  5. Grover SA, Komaroff AL, Weisberg M, Cook EF, Goldman L (1987). "The characteristics and hospital course of patients admitted for presumed acute pyelonephritis". J Gen Intern Med 2 (1): 5–10. PMID 3543268[e]