- age 55 years or older
- "isolated tenderness of patella (no bone tenderness of knee other than patella)"
- "tenderness at head of fibula"
- "inability to flex 90 degrees"
- "inability to bear weight both immediately and in the emergency department for 4 steps (unable to transfer weight twice onto each lower limb regardless of limping)"
Torn meniscus or ligament
- Diagnosis: Apley compression, McMurray's, and medial-lateral grind tests.
- Treatment: When to surgically repair anterior cruciate ligaments is not clear.
Cruciate ligaments injuries
- Anterior drawer, posterior drawer, lateral pivot shift, and Lachman tests. Injuries to the cruciate ligaments can be accurately diagnosed with physical examination by orthopedic physicians; meniscal injuries are more difficult to detect. No sign on the physical examination (McMurray's, Apley's, and joint line tenderness) is more than 70% sensitive for meniscal injuries.
When to surgically repair anterior cruciate ligaments is not clear.
Knee injuries are common in sports, certainly contact sports such as American football, in which two 300-pound men may strike opposite sides of the same leg, but also in individual events requiring explosive effort with the knee. Advanced dancers can have very similar injuries; it is no coincidence that professional football players may study ballet to improve their coordination.
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