Glomerulonephritis

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In medicine, glomerulonephritis, also called Bright's Disease, is "inflammation of the renal glomeruli (kidney glomerulus) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to hematuria; proteinuria; hypertension; and renal insufficiency.".[1]

Classification

Primary glomerulonephritis

Secondary glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis may be secondary to systematic vasculitis or connective tissue disease.

Etiology and Pathology

Glomerulonephritis is "characterized by intraglomerular inflammation and cellular proliferation associated with hematuria. This definition excludes several important nonproliferative or sclerosing glomerulopathies such as membranous glomerulopathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and diabetic nephropathy."[2]

Glomerulonephritis may be caused by vasculitis of small vessels.[3]

Diagnosis

Hematuria in glomerulonephritis "is typified by the presence of dysmorphic red cells or red-cell casts in the urine" [2] However, these findeing cannot differentiate proliferative from nonproliferative glomerulopathies.[2]

References

  1. Anonymous (2015), Glomerulonephritis (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Hricik DE, Chung-Park M, Sedor JR (1998). "Glomerulonephritis.". N Engl J Med 339 (13): 888-99. PMID 9744974.
  3. Jennette JC, Falk RJ (1997). "Small-vessel vasculitis". N. Engl. J. Med. 337 (21): 1512-23. PMID 9366584[e]