Forward Area Air Defense

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Included in the U.S. Army Forward Area Air Defense Command, Control and Intelligence (FAAD, or FAAD C2I), a Battle Management/Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (BM/C4I) system system are the radios, computers, radars, and surface-to-air missiles to cover an Army tactical areas.[1] It also is the command and control component of the new counter-rocket, artillery and mortar (C-RAM) mission.

As the Air Defense component of the Army Battle Command System.[2], the the Air and Missile Defense Command and Control System, has two main components, one for planning and one (FAAD) for tactical control:

  • Air and Missile Defense Planning and Control System software for planning, [3] which now runs on the Air and Missile Defense Workstation (AMDWS) [4]
  • FAAD at the tactical engagement level. It includes both software, as well as communications interfaces to specific sensor and weapons systems. FAAD is extensible, as demonstrated by its accepting the additional sensors, weapons, and local warning components of counter-Rocket, Artillery and Mortar (C-RAM) mission.

With its ability to interoperate with the U.S. Air Force E-3 Sentry and U.S. Navy E-2 Hawkeye, it can also get support from fighter aircraft; the E-3, again via JTIDS, can cue the air defenses of Navy ships that are in range.

FAAD implements air defense artillery doctrine, but adds interfaces to systems outside the immediate ADA structure. command posts (CP), tactical operations centers (TOC), and fire direction centers (FDC).

Integral components of the FAAD C3I system include:

The ABMOC and A2C2 systems utilize the Army Standard Integrated Command Post System (SICPS) shelter with HMMWV. SINCGARS and EPLRS radios, Mobile Subscriber Equipment (MSE), and Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) terminal provide communications (voice and data(,

Communications systems; time and position information

All the ground radios, at least, will be consolidated into the Joint Tactical Radio System and Warfighter Information Network-Tactical.

Sensors

To track aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicle and helicopter threats, there are two kinds of ground-based sensor (GBS). For heavy units, the ground-based sensor is the AN/MPQ-64 Sentinel radar. The lightweight and special divisions interim sensor (LSDIS) is a man-portable warning radar and electronic warfare platform.

Organic Sensors
Function Sentinel LSDIS
Range and sensitivity Detects one-square meter targets out to a range of 40 kilometers and from 0 to 4,000 meters above ground level Detects 2-square meter targets out to a range of 20 kilometers and from 0 to 3,000 meters above ground level
Operations All weather, 24-hour operations Limited weather
High-speed, maneuvering fixed-wing aircraft acquisition Acquires up to 40 km away Acquires; range N/A
hovering, running, or pop-up helicopter Acquires up to 20 km away Acquires up to 8 km away
UAV Acquires up to 30 km away Acquires; range N/A
Information sharing Uses EPLRS to ABMOC and A2C2 N/A

FAAD also interfaces to Air Force and Navy systems via the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System, including the E-3 Sentry and E-2 Hawkeye radar aircraft, and the shipboard AEGIS battle management system.

Weapons

Army

The Army has several levels of air defense weapons, not all in general deployment:

  • THAAD exoatmospheric ballistic missile defense. AN/TPY-2 radar,
  • MIM-104 Patriot endoatmospheric BMD; high to medium antiarcraft
  • SLAMRAAM land-based derivative of AIM-120 AMRAAM; deployed now in National Capital Area; to become low-to-medium range antiaircraft
  • FIM-92 Stinger: low altitude including individual soldier; vehicle mounts to become final defense and helicopter defence when SLAMRAAM is in full production. No dedicated radar but can be cued by FAAD.

Air Force

F-15 Eagle, F-16 Fighting Falcon, and F-15E Strike Eagle may, depending on upgrade level, have JTIDS; they will otherwise need HAVE QUICK II voice direction. F-22 Raptor has JTIDS, as will the F-35A Lighning II.

Air Force fighters use AIM-120 AMRAAM and AIM-9 Sidewinder, as well as final dogfight cannon

Navy

Navy F-18 Hornet, F-18 Super Hornet, and future F-35C Lightning II fighters also use AIM-120 AMRAAM and AIM-9 Sidewinder, as well as final dogfight cannon.

In addition, Navy Ticonderoga-class cruisers and Burke-class destroyers have long-range RIM-156 Standard SM-2 and medium-range RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow missiles that may cover part of the land area controlled by FAAD, or approaches to it.

References

  1. , Chapter 5, Command and Control Systems, Air Defense Artillery Reference Handbook, 31 March 2000, FM 44-100-2
  2. "C4 Support to Air and Missile Defense", Army, October 2004
  3. U.S. Department of the Army (31 October 2000), Field Manual 3-01.11: Air Defense Artillery Reference Handbook, FM 3-01.11
  4. , October 31, 2007
  5. Globalsecurity, Joint Tactical Ground Station (JTAGS)
  6. Field Manual 40-1: Joint Tactical Ground Station Operations, September 9, 1999, FM 40-1