Fokker

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Fokker
CompanyLogo.png
Website www.fokker.nl
Company form Corporation
Founded by Anthony Fokker
Headquarters Veerdam 44 [1]
3351 AK, Papendrecht [2] , Zuid-Holland
Netherlands
Industry Aerospace Engineering
Product/Service Commercial Aircraft Production

Fokker was a Dutch airplane manufacturing company founded in 1912 by Anthony Fokker. Between 1912 and 1928, Fokker emerged as the largest aircraft manufacturer in the world with factories in Europe and America. However, Fokker lost ground when Boeing and Douglas Aircraft (now a part of Boeing) increasingly applied aluminium in their new aircraft instead of wooden structures [3].The company is known today as Stork Aerospace, and now focuses on parts manufacturing rather than building airplanes.[4]

Anthony Fokker, founder

Anthony Fokker "the Flying Dutchman" was born in Kediri, East Java (then Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia). He died in 1939 in the USA, at that time he had become an American citizen.

Company history

The heritage of Anthony Fokker started with the 'Spin' in 1911. Although the 'Spin' was actually designed by Jacob Goedecker, Anthony Fokker further improved and commercialized the aircraft, causing it to be remembered as the first Fokker plane [5].

World War 1

The German government forced Fokker and Hugo Junkers to work together. This collaboration resulted in some famous early Fokker planes such as the Fokker E.III, Fokker Dr.I, and Fokker D.VII. These were all built for the German army to be used during World War I. Fokker gained further fame with his synchronization gear invention that allowed the machine gun to be fired through the propeller, resulting in an air-superiority briefly known as the Fokker Scourge. The famous Fokker Dr.I triplane was used by Manfred von Richthofen, the Red Baron, towards the end of his career, who achieved over a quarter of his 80 air combat victories in Fokker aircraft.

Yet some of Fokker's early monoplanes were insufficiently tested and had a tendency to warp and come apart under hard maneuvering. Fokker had managed to cure these problems by the time the Dreidekker entered service .

Interbellum

After the war's end, the terms of the Treaty of Versailles forbade Germany to build any aircraft or aircraft engines. In 1919 Fokker returned to the Netherlands and started a new aircraft company, the Nederlandse Vliegtuigenfabriek (Dutch Aircraft Factory), predecessor to the Fokker Aircraft Company. Despite the strict disarmament conditions in the Treaty, Fokker did not return home empty-handed: he managed to smuggle an entire train's worth of D.VII and C.I military planes and spare parts across the German-Dutch border. This initial stock enabled him to quickly set up shop, but his focus shifted from military to civil aircraft.

As from 1919 Anthony Fokker started making inroads into civil aviation with the four-seat F.II; Fokker's first plane specifically built for passenger transport. Other passenger aircraft followed. Particularly the eleven-seat F.IV was very successful in achieving many spectacular world records at that time. Fokker's best selling aircraft in this period between the two World Wars was the three-engined F.VII; a three-engined passenger plane with the world's first air-cooled engine of which 230 were built[6].

By 1930, 172 out of the 596 aircraft operated by European airlines were Fokkers, worldwide 54 airlines had Fokker planes and in 22 countries Fokker aircraft were manufactured under license. Many of today's global airlines started or expanded their air transport with Fokker aircraft in their early years, like KLM but also Lufthansa which started its first (and international) flight with a Fokker-Grulich F.ll on April 6, 1926. Other known airlines in those days operating Fokker aircraft are PanAm, TWA, Mexicana, and Alitalia amongst many other known airlines [7].

Netherlands Aircraft Manufacturing Company of Amsterdam

The "Netherlands Aircraft Manufacturing Company of Amsterdam" was the name of a sales organization set up in New York. Bob Noorduyn played an important role in this office. He had prior experience with Sopwith, Koolhoven, Armstrong-Whitwhorth and the British Aerial Transport Company. When he left Fokker he founded "Noorduyn Aircraft Limited" at Montreal. This organization later produced a large number of "Harvards" and "Norsemans" [8].

Atlantic Aircraft Corporation & Fokker Aircraft

This was the name given to the American Fokker Factories. Later Atlantic Aircraft Corporation became Fokker Aircraft, General Aviation and later North American Aviation (NAA) Company [9].

Established at beginning of 1923 and started active operations in May, remodeling 100 D.H.4s. Held patent rights and license to build Fokker aircraft in USA, and largely associated with Anthony Fokker, who went to USA in 1922 and played a part in founding the company at Hasbrouck Heights, NJ. Fokker was also design consultant to other American companies. AO-1 was two-seater of characteristic Fokker biplane form for artillery observation; XLB-2 (officially prefixed Atlantic-Fokker or Atlantic (Fokker)) of 1927/28 was first twin-engined US Air Corps monoplane bomber. Type not adopted despite Fokker's experience with large civil monoplanes. C-2 and C-2A of late 1920s also were typical Fokker-type high-wing cantilever monoplanes [10].

World War 2

During World War 2 the Fokker factory was put to use by the German occupation. The aircraft under construction on the production line were ordered to be finished; these were the remainder of the T8W torpedo bomber seaplanes and six G1B's (ordered by Finland).

F.W. Seekatz was the Nazi representative placed in charge of the Fokker factory. The former director, van Tijen, was arrested in November 1940 by the Germans for his lack of cooperation, although he was later released due to lack of evidence. Later in the war van Tijen was incarcerated in the concentration camp Buchenwald, because he was working secretly for the Allies. He survived the war there [11].

Production Facilities

Despite an increase of staff from 1,700 (in 1940) to 5,000 (in 1944), the production was less than the pre-war output due to passive resistance of the Dutch. Planes on which the Fokker design office worked during the war were the Arado Ar196 seaplane and the Dornier Do24 flying boat. The production lines were used for the Bucker Bu181 trainer, as well as various components for other planes.

Near the end of the war the production facilities were ransacked by the Germans, materials and machines taken to Germany. The Fokker factory was stripped of anything useful [12].

Aircraft flown

Fokker aircraft used during World War 2 were flown by various nations, both Axis and Allies.

  • C5 Scout plane;
  • C10 Scout plane;
  • D21 fighter; This type was in use with the Dutch LVA ("Lucht-Vaart Afdeling" i.e. Air Corps), the Danish Air force and the Finnish. The Finnish put their D21 to use against the Russians throughout most of World War 2, having bought 7 and built another 38 under license. Several Finnish aces flew the D21 [13]..
  • G1 air cruiser; A number of these were in use with the LVA, although not the complete batch of ordered G1A's was delivered when the Germans attacked. Some finished export version (G1B), ordered by Finland, were put into combat. After the May-days the almost all Dutch G1's were destroyed. The batches on the product line were finished and used by the Germans as trainers, with one G1 two Fokker employees (Leegstra and Vos) escaped to England despite restricted amounts of fuel supplied by the Germans [14].
  • F36 (FXXXVI); this passenger plane was used shortly by the RAF, but had to be taken out of service after a crash [15].
  • F22 (FXXII); these were pressed into service in No. 1680 Western Isles Communications and Transport Flight. One example even survived until 1947, when a lack of spares decided its fate [16].
  • T8W Torpedo bomber; The T8W was used both by the British, escaped versions in the (Dutch) 320 Sq., as well as the Germans. The British used 8 T8W's (Dutch codes R1, R3, R6-11. British codes AV958-965) After a while the British had to take the T8W out of service due to a lack of spares and losses. [17].

1945 - 1979

After WW II, Fokker restarted its activities in aviation with the help of the Netherlands government and some industrialists. It is here where the relationship between Stork and Fokker is being formalized as Stork is asked to appoint a seat in the Advisory Board of Fokker. Stork has done so till 1996.

In November 1958 Fokker delivered its first turboprop aircraft after the War, the Fokker F27 Friendship to Aer Lingus. The F27 became the world's best selling turboprop aircraft till today. A total of 786 F27s were built, 581 by Fokker and 205 aircraft by Fairchild under a license agreement. The aircraft still is a real 'workhorse' among many airlines around the globe. After the F27 Fokker delivered its first jet aircraft, the Fokker F28 Fellowship to LTU in Germany in February 1969. A total of 241 were built and finally the Fokker 100 superseded the F28 in 1986.

After already having built 100s of other military fighters like the Gloster Meteor and the F104 Starfighter, Fokker assembled 300 F-16 fighter aircraft for the Netherlands Airforce, and also for the Airforces in Denmark and Norway in the seventies. Also Fokker was asked to become an associated manufacturer for the Airbus A300, the first aircraft from Airbus. Fokker today still manufacturers the moveable parts of the A300 wing, which in total represent about 6% of the aircraft's total value [18].

By the end of the 60's Fokker started a department focussed on space technology, the official start was in 1968. One of the first projects was a feasibility study for the ANS project ("Astronomische Nederlandse Satelliet". Dutch; Dutch Astronic Satellite). ANS was launched on august 30th in 1974. This success led to the IRAS project ("InfraRood Astronomische Satelliet". Dutch; Astronomic Infrared Satellite), this project was initiated by a number of Dutch industry parties together, Fokker took a leading role in this project. Ultimately the IRAS-project became a joint project for the USA, GB and the Netherlands and was launched in 1983 [19].

1980 - 1996

In 1983 Fokker simultaneously launched the successors of the F27 and the F28, the Fokker 50 and the Fokker 100. The Fokker 50 made its first flight in December 1985, The aircraft, like the Fokker 100, was an all-new technology plane of which a total of 212 were manufactured. In August 1987, the first Fokker 50 was delivered to Ansett Australia. A year later than the Fokker 50, the Fokker 100 made its maiden flight in November 1986 with Swissair as the launching customer taking delivery of the first aircraft in February 1988. A total of 278 Fokker 100s were manufactured. Later two family derivatives were developed. First the Fokker 70, a shortened version of the Fokker 100 of which a total of 47 were built. Second, the Fokker 60 utility was launched as a stretched military variant of the Fokker 50 for the Netherlands Air Force [20].

The worldwide airline crisis of the 1990s, fierce competition and a wobbly dollar unfortunately put an end to Fokker in March 1996 [21]. On January 22, 1996, the Board of Directors of Daimler-Benz decided to focus on its core automobile business and cut ties with Fokker. The next day an Amsterdam court extended temporary creditor protection. On March 15 the Fokker company was declared bankrupt. Those divisions of the company that manufactured parts and carried out maintenance and repair work were taken over by Stork N.V.; it is now known as Stork Aerospace Group. Stork Fokker exists to sustain remarketing of the company's existing aircraft: they refurbish and resell F50s and F100s, and converted a few F50s to transport planes. Special projects included the development of a F50 Maritime Patrol version and a F100 Executive Jet. For this project Stork received the 2005 "Aerospace Industry Award" in the "Air Transport" category from Flight International magazine .

1996 and beyond

After Fokker went bankrupt the company wasn't completely over. Parts continued on because these were profitable (Fokker Space), others were sold to Stork. Most important change was that the remnants of Fokker stopped building and designing complete planes, instead the focus shifted to become a supplier of specific parts.

Fokker Space / Dutch Space

This branch was split off in 1995 because it was profitable on its own. In 2002 Fokker Space changed it's name into "Dutch Space" [22].

In 2005 EADS took Dutch Space over, it is still residing in the city Leiden [23]. As of 2007 about 260 people work with Dutch Space, which makes it the largest space technology company in the Netherlands. The organization is teaming up with other (Dutch) technology firms too [24].

Stork subsidiary

In 1996 Stork acquired Fokker and the company successfully changed from aircraft integrator into a specialist for structures, wiring and services with an impressive portfolio. In 2002 Stork Aerospace receives the Flight award for the development of Glare, in 2003 Stork Aerospace opens a new facility for Glare. Glare is a revolutionary new FML (Fibre Metal Laminate) material of which 500m2 is applied in the Airbus A380. In 2003 Stork Aerospace is selected by Lockheed Martin and Northrop Grumman as a main supplier of wiring, inflight opening doors and arresting gear for the Lockheed Martin JSF (Joint Strike Fighter). In 2005 Stork Aerospace receives the Flight award for the successful re-marketing programs of the Fokker Aircraft. The Future 50 and the Future 100 programs. In 2006 Stork Aerospace takes over AIRINC in the USA. In 2007 Stork Aerospace is selected as supplier for the Boeing 747-800 Flaps. this order is considered a break-through in the relationship with Boeing Commercial Airplanes [25].

Rekkof

Rekkof Aircraft is a Dutch company dedicated to restarting the production of upgraded versions of the Fokker F70 and Fokker F100 regional jets as production of those stopped when Fokker was declared bankrupt in 1996. They first announced their plans in late 2003 and intend to first re-launch the Fokker F70NG (NG standing for Next Generation) and if enough orders are placed later also the Fokker F100NG. Notable changes on the NG models will be winglets and different engines. A possible third as of yet unnamed stretched version of the aircraft has also been mentioned. Rekkof believes there is a sufficient market for the aircraft and that the design can still compete with similar modern regional airliners from manufacturers as Embraer and Canadair. However, while the announcement of a launch customer and the production re-start have been called "imminent" by Rekkof a number of times between early 2004 and mid-2005, none of Rekkof's plans have materialised to date. KLM, a current user of Fokker aircraft and suggested as a launch customer, has denied that they are in negotiations with Rekkof . Though Rekkof has stated that it prefers to assemble the aircraft in the Netherlands, with Lelystad Airport and Enschede Airport Twente mentioned as possible assembly locations, Bangalore in India has now also been mentioned as a possible location with Indian engineering firm Cades Digitech planning to invest 300 million US dollars in an assembly plant [26].

Rekkof Aircraft is a part of Panta Holdings BV, which also owns VLM Airlines and Denim Air, both airlines using Fokker 50 aircraft.

Fokker Aircraft, overview

The following overview focuses on all aircraft types and projects of Fokker, both commercial as military. Also aircraft only license built by Fokker are included.

B-series

The B-series was created after World War 1 and denoted flying boats and amphibians. The complete line extended from 1922 to 1930 and consisted of four different types [27].

Type Name Era Dimensions Powerplant Number built Notes
B.I [28] Military Flying Boat
B.II [29] Military Flying Boat
B.III [30] Military Flying Boat
B.IIIc [31] Civil Flying Boat
B.IV (a.k.a. F.11) [32] -- Built in 1928 Span , Height , Length Pratt & Whitney Hornet, 525 hp.

Alternative engine; Bristol Jupiter, 450 hp.

1 Civil flying boat with cantilever monoplane wing construction, equipped with a cabin for 6 passengers. It was designed for the American market. The pusher engine was mounted on top of the wing.
B.V (B.5) [33] 0 Military Flying Boat, The B.5 was a design for a long distance flyingboat to be used for reconnaissance, torpedolancing and bombing. Early in 1935, the Dornier "Wal" flyingboats of the Dutch MLD had to be replaced and Fokker was asked to present a design which resulted in this three-engine aircraft. The design lost from the Dornier Do24, therefore plane was never built.

C-series

The types in the C-series of Fokker comprised both multi-seat reconnaissance, as well as light-bomber, fighter and floatplane versions. These types flew with both aircorps as well as naval air services around the world. The period in which types were assigned a C classification ran from 1919 (CI) to 1937 (C.XIV-W). The reason for the use of the letter C, probably derived from Anthony Fokker's desire to continue with already established designation introduced in Germany during World War 1 [34].

Type Name Era Dimensions Powerplant Number built Notes
C.I
C.Ia
C.I-W
C.II
C.II
C.III
C.IV
C.IV A
C.IV B
C.IV C
C.IV-W
C.V-A
C.V-B
C.V-C
C.V-D
C.V-E
C.V-W
C.VI
C.VII-W
C.VIII
C.VIII-W
C.IX Hispano Suiza 650 hp. Total of 6[35]
  • 5 for the Dutch Army Air Corps
  • 1 for the Swiss Air Force
Armament consisted of one-to-two fixed guns and two free guns for the observer. The C.IX was a two-seater reconnaissance aircraft, visually quite similar to the C.V-E series.[36]. Variation on the C.5E with stronger engine [37]
C.X -- 1st flight; 1934 Wingspan 12m

Height 3.3m Length 9.2m

Rolls Royce Kestrel, 650 hp. Finish license built versions use the Pegasus engine. 36 built in Holland, 35 in license built by the Finish [38]
  • Built in Holland; 4 for the Finish Air Force
  • Built in Holland; 32 for the Dutch Army Air Corps
  • Built in Finland; 35 for the Finish Air Force
The Fokker C.10. was a two-seat mixed structured semi-biplane dive bomber and communications aircraft with fixed landing gear. The C.10 was a sleek, good-looking aircraft; it replaced the older C.V. But it was immediately obsolete, being introduced in 1936. It was license-built in Finland, with a Bristol Pegasus radial engine. Finland bought 4 C.10's and acquired the manufacturing license on 18 May, 1936. The aircraft were shipped to Finland in Nov, 1936 [39].
C.XI-W
C.XIV-W

D-series

Type Name Era Dimensions Powerplant Number built Notes
D.I
D.II
D.III
D.IV
D.V
D.VI
D.VII (D.7) -- 1918 Wingspan in meters 8,9 m

Length 7,0 m Crew 1

Mercedes D-III Engine (168 hp) about 1.000 Making use of the advice given by Manfred von Richthofen, the Fokker Flugzeug-Werke company produced the Fokker D.7. Work started late in 1917 to meet a specification calling for a D-type fighter powered by a 160 hp Mercedes D.III in-line engine with an auto-type radiator, the first in a German fighter. The D.7. entered the German War Ministry's competition at Johannistal Airfield, in Adlershof, in January and February of 1918, outclassing all 30 of the other participants.

Orders were placed for 400 from Fokker and a large number from Albatross and OAW. Of the 2,000 ordered only 1,000 were built before the war's end. The D.7. entered combat in April 1918 at the second battle of the Aisne with the first consignment going to Jagdgeschwader I (Fighter Wing One) commanded by von Richtofen. One month before the Armistice, 800 D.7.'s were in service at the front. There were still some 700 in service at the time of the Armistice, the terms of which acknowledged the superiority of the D.7. as a combat aircraft, with the treaty of Versailles specifically singling out this airplane for surrender to the allies.

The Fokker D.7. was strong, fast and superb at high altitudes and was extremely popular with the German pilots. Among the exceptional qualities of the airplane, apart from speed, maneuverability and rate of climb, were ruggedness and outstanding performance at high altitude. The D.7. was easy to fly, yet responsive to the controls right up to it ceiling. The F, and final, version appeared in August, 1918 [40].

D.VIII
D.IX
D.X --- 1923 12 Parasol-wing fighter, development of the D.VIII through the V.41 type, which began in Germany during WWI. The construction was of the usual mixed type, but the use of two radiators on the sides was an innovation at that time. The plane was partially ready when Platz with his staff moved to Veere in the Netherlands. It was finished in 1919 as a prototype for the D.10. The 185hp BMW engine was replaced by a 300hp Hispano-Suiza after transfer of the prototype to the Netherlands. In 1923 ten were sold to Spain and one to Finland. [41][42].
D.XI (D.11), a.k.a. PW-7. -- 1923 Wingspan 11.67 m

Height 3.20 m Wing Area: 21.80 m2 Length 7.50 m Crew 1

177 in total[43][44].
  • 125 for Russia
  • Argentina
  • 60 for Romania
  • 2 for Switzerland
  • 3 for the USA (labeled PW-7)
The D.XI was one of the aircraft which were used to equip the Luftwaffe nucleus being trained in Russia [45].
D.XII (D.12)
D.XIII (D.13) --- 1924 Wingspan 11 m

Height 2.90 m Length 7.90 m Crew 1

1 Napier Lion XI Engine (570 hp) 50[46] or 52[47] Sesquiplane fighter, a development of the Fokker D.11., build in the Netherlands. The official customer for this type was Argentina, but they really were intended for the reborn, still illegal German Luftwaffe on bases in Russia. A total of 52 were delivered. When Germany abandoned Lipetsk in 1933, the remaining 30 were handed over to the USSR[48].
D.XIV (D.14)
D.XV (D.15)
D.XVI (D.16)
D.XVII (D.17)
D.XIX (D.19) Fighter project, no details available [49].
D.XX (D.20) Fighter project, no details available [50].
D.XXI (D 21) 144 in total
  • 43 in Holland
  • 10 in Danmark (license)
  • 91 in Finland (license)
Originating from specifications for the KNIL ("Royal Dutch East Indies Army"), it was a good design for it's time. But when World War 2 started it was already outdated with a fixed landing gear and lacking speed compared to the BF109 and Hurricane. However, the type did quite well in the fights it was involved in. In Finland it was even used against the Russians until 1944 (and possibly even longer)[51].
D.XXIII (D 23) 1 Prototype Prototype of a twin-boom twin-engined fighter, with the engines in a pusher/tractor setting [52].

E-series

Type Name Era Dimensions Powerplant Number built Notes

F-series

Type Name Era Dimensions Powerplant Number built Notes
F.I Commercial
F.II Commercial
F.III Commercial
F.IV Commercial
F.V Commercial
F.VII Commercial
F.VIIa Commercial
F.VIIa-3m Commercial
F.VIIb-3m Commercial
F.VIII Commercial
F.IX Commercial
F.X Commercial
F.XI Universal Commercial
F.XII Commercial
F.XIII Commercial
F.XIV Commercial
F.XV Commercial
F.XVI Commercial
F.XVII Commercial
F.XVIII Commercial
F.XIX Commercial
F.XX Commercial
F.XXI Commercial
F.XXII Commercial
F.XXIII Commercial
F.XXXVI Commercial
F.XXXVII Commercial
F.56 Commercial
F-9 Commercial
F-10 Commercial
F-11 (a.k.a. B.IV) Commercial, Flying Boat
F-14 Commercial
F-32 Commercial
F24 Commercial
F25 Commercial
F26 Commercial
F27 Friendship Commercial/Military Turboprop
F28 Fellowship Commercial Jet Liner
F29 Commercial
Fokker F50 Commercial/Military Turboprop
Fokker F100 Commercial Jet Liner
Fokker F70 Commercial Jet Liner
Fokker F130 Commercial Jet Liner
Fokker F60u Military Turboprop

G-series

Type Name Era Dimensions Powerplant Number built Notes
G1 Grim Reaper / Le Faucheur Military Air Cruiser

M-series

Type Name Era Dimensions Powerplant Number built Note
C.II Commercial
Universal Commercial
Super Universal Commercial
C-2 Commercial

S-series

The S-series span two periods, ranging from 1920-1938 and 1947-1953. The designation was used for trainer-aircraft produced by Fokker. [53]

Type Name Era Dimensions Powerplant Number built Notes
S.11 [54] Instructor
S.12 [55] Instructor
S.13 [56] Universal Trainer
S.14 [57] Mach Trainer 1st flight 1951 Rolls Royce Derwent 21 built in the Netherlands, 50 in Brazil Military Jet Trainer

Spin-series

Type Name Era Dimensions Powerplant Number built Notes
Spin 1
Spin 2
Spin 3
Spin Variant 1912 (1st)
Spin Variant 1912 (2nd)
Spin Variant 1913 (1st)
Spin Variant 1913 (2nd)
Spin Variant 1913 (3rd)

T Series

In the Fokker stable, aircraft denoted by a T were designed for torpedo bombing and reconnaissance. In most cases these were float planes. The various types of the T-series flew from 1921 until World War 2.

Type Name Era Dimensions Powerplant Number built Notes
T.I [58] Initial model, but never passed beyond the design phase. Possible improvements led to a new type.
T.II [59]
T.III [60]
T.III-W [61]
T.IV Crew 4

Wingspan 26.20m Length 17.60m Height 6.00m Wing area 97.80m2

Two Wright Cyclone GR-1820-F52 air cooled radial. 18 [62] to 33 [63] Floatplane torpedo-bomber and reconnaissance aircraft, designed for use in the Dutch far east possessions, crew of four. The plane had a armament of three manually operated machine guns in an open nose cockpit, rear cockpit and one firing through the floor of the rear cockpit beneath the tail. Bomb load 1,760lb internally mounted. Alternatively a single 1,320lb torpedo could be carried externally. The T.4 was a remarkably ugly, angular monoplane. First appeared in 1934 and were in service, but hopelessly outclassed by the invading Japanese aircraft. 12 T.IV version (Lorraine engines) delivered 1927 - 12 August 1930, torpedo-bomber/recce floatplane. Serials T-1 to T-12. Rebuilt 1936 with Cyclone engines. Several still in service in May 1940. 12 T.IVA version (Cyclone engines) to NEI 27 April 1936 - 1938, and still used in March 1942. Serials T-13 to T-24 [64].
T.V [65] -- 1st flight in 1935 Crew 5

Wingspan 21.0 m Length 16.0 m Height 5.1 m Wing area 66.2 sq. m

2x Bristol "Pegasus" XXVI, 912 hp. each 34 The Dutch Air Corps had sixteen of these aircruisers/bombers. The first T-V prototype flew in 1935. This type of aircraft was intended to protect a dedicated area. It had to be heavily armed and fast and above that it had to carry enough fuel to stay in the air for a long time. The Dutch Airforce ordered sixteen T.5's but when they were delivered the whole concept was outdated. Another task of the T.5 would have been that of a bomber and that remained as the major task. However, just a few of them had bombracks, so this task also was not fully carried out. The aircraft remained in service until 1940 [66].
TVII 0 The Fokker T.7W was a design for a two-engine reconnaissance and torpedo water aircraft. It was offered to the Dutch Airforce MLD as a replacement for the Fokker T.IV. At the end of 1936, the negotiations with the "Marine Luchtvaart Dienst" (MLD) (Dutch; Naval Air Service) ended without any results and the project was cancelled [67].
T.VIII-W [68] 36 in total [69].

T.8-W/C - version for Finland, 5 built. T.8-W/G - reconnaissance aircraft and torpedo bomber, 19 built. T.8-W/M - maritime patrol and anti-submarine aircraft, 12 built.

Twin-engined floatplane, designed as torpedo bomber for the Dutch Navy. The first T.8 prototype flew in 1938. The aircraft entered production in 1939. After May 1940, some T.8.'s W were flown to England and used, with Dutch crews, for sea reconnaissance; others were in German service.

24 T.VIII-Wg ordered 23 September 1938 (5 a/c) and 1 January 1939 (19 a/c). Delivered 25 April 1939 - 28 July 1939 and 10 May 1940 - 12 May 1940. Serials R-1 to R-24 allocated. Only 6 of second batch actually delivered (making a total of 11 aircraft) due to German invasion. Torpedo-bomber recce floatplane. 8 escaped to UK 14 May 1940, and used to form 320 sqn on 1 June 1940. 12 T.VIII-Wm version ordered 1 February 1940 for use in NEI. Serials R-25 to R-36 allocated but not used. Captured by Germans before any completed [70].

T.VIII-L [71] 1 (prototype) Military Bomber. Designed on request of the Finish Air Force, the order was for a landbased version of the T.VIII. Upon completion it was incorporated in the Luftwaffe
T.IX [72] 1 (prototype) Military Bomber

V-series

Type Name Era Dimensions Powerplant Number built Notes

W-series

Type Name Era Dimensions Powerplant Number built Notes

License built by Fokker

Besides designing and building aircraft completely on their own, Fokker also built a lot of aircraft in license throughout the years. The origin of these aircraft is very different, as well as the circumstances under which each was produced. The overview below tells which aircraft types were built by Fokker. For more detailed information see the book of Theo Wesselink and Thijs Postma (Dutch). [73].

Type Name Era Dimensions Powerplant Number built Notes
Bücker Bü 181B Bestmann World War 2
Arado Ar 196 World War 2
Dornier Do24 World War 2
Hawker FB Mk51 Sea Fury
Gloster Meteor F.Mk.8 Meteor
Saab 90 Scandia
Hawker Hunter F.Mk.4 and F.Mk.6 Hawker Hunter
Lockheed F104G Starfighter
Sud Aviation SE 3160 Alouette III
General Dynamics F16 Fightin' Falcon

References & Citations

  1. http://www.fbg.nl/92036
  2. http://www.fbg.nl/92036
  3. http://www.fokker.nl/eCache/DEF/5/814.html
  4. http://www.stork.com/eCache/DEF/1/190.html
  5. http://www.fokker.nl/eCache/DEF/5/814.html
  6. http://www.fokker.nl/eCache/DEF/5/814.html
  7. http://www.fokker.nl/eCache/DEF/5/814.html
  8. Book: Fokker - the man and the aircraft, p66
  9. http://www.scripophily.net/teaico.html
  10. http://www.aviastar.org/manufacturers/0236.html
  11. Book; Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p100-101
  12. Book; Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p100-101
  13. Book; Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p99
  14. Book; Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p100
  15. Book; Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p99
  16. Book; Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p99
  17. Book; Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p95, p99
  18. http://www.fokker.nl/eCache/DEF/5/814.html
  19. http://www.dutchspace.nl/pages/about/content.asp?id=216
  20. http://www.fokker.nl/eCache/DEF/5/814.html
  21. http://www.fokker.nl/eCache/DEF/5/814.html
  22. http://www.dutchspace.nl/pages/about/content.asp?id=216
  23. http://www.esa.int/esaCP/SEMMYBVLWFE_Netherlands_0.html
  24. http://www.niid.nl/article.aspx?i=202
  25. http://www.fokker.nl/eCache/DEF/5/814.html
  26. Cades Digitech will make Fokker aircraft, article from Daily News & Analysis, India
  27. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p178
  28. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p178
  29. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p178
  30. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p178-179
  31. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p179
  32. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p179
  33. http://www.dutch-aviation.nl/index5/Military/index5-1%20B5.html
  34. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p179
  35. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p183
  36. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p183
  37. http://www.dutch-aviation.nl/index5/Military/index5-1%20C9.html
  38. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p184
  39. http://www.dutch-aviation.nl/index5/Military/index5-1%20C10.html
  40. http://www.dutch-aviation.nl/index5/Military/index5-1%20D7.html
  41. http://www.dutch-aviation.nl/index5/Military/index5-1%20D10.html
  42. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p185
  43. http://www.dutch-aviation.nl/index5/Military/index5-1%20D11.html
  44. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p185
  45. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p185
  46. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p185
  47. http://www.dutch-aviation.nl/index5/Military/index5-1%20D13.html
  48. http://www.dutch-aviation.nl/index5/Military/index5-1%20D13.html
  49. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p186
  50. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p186
  51. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p186-187
  52. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p187
  53. Hegener, H. . Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p202
  54. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p204
  55. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p204
  56. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p204
  57. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p204
  58. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p205
  59. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p205
  60. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p205
  61. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p205
  62. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p205-206
  63. http://www.dutch-aviation.nl/index5/Military/index5-1%20T4.html
  64. http://www.dutch-aviation.nl/index5/Military/index5-1%20T4.html
  65. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p206
  66. http://www.dutch-aviation.nl/index5/Military/index5-1%20T5.html
  67. http://www.dutch-aviation.nl/index5/Military/index5-1%20T7W.html
  68. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p206
  69. http://www.dutch-aviation.nl/index5/Military/index5-1%20T8W.html
  70. http://www.dutch-aviation.nl/index5/Military/index5-1%20T8W.html
  71. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p206
  72. Book: Fokker - The man and the aircraft, p206
  73. Book; Wesselink, T. , Postma, T. (1984) Nederlandse vliegtuigen naar buitenlands ontwerp (Dutch; Dutch aircraft of foreign design). Romen Luchtvaart.