- Please sort and annotate in a user-friendly manner and consider archiving the URLs behind the links you provide. See also related web sources.
The professional association is the International Association for Cryptologic Research. They organise three of the most important conferences — Eurocrypt in May or June, Crypto in California in August, and Asiacrypt (which is sometimes in Australia) late in the year. They also provide online publishing for research papers, and maintain a calendar of conferences and events world-wide.
IBM have a good overview document by Murdoch Mactaggart. The table of contents page also has a glossary.
Another overview is here.
There is a large cryptography FAQ with many links to other material.