Countries of the United Kingdom
Countries of the United Kingdom is a term used for England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, which together form the sovereign state of The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. They are also described as "constituent countries", "countries within a country" and "nations". English, Northern Irish, Scottish and Welsh nationals are all British citizens without distinction. Citizens of Northern Ireland are also entitled to Irish citizenship through the Republic of Ireland, and can hold a dual citizenship with Britain, retain the option of Irish citizenship, or have the entitlement to either citizenship removed by request.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom and Her Majesty's Government deal with all reserved matters for Northern Ireland and Scotland and all non-transferred matters for Wales, but not in general on matters that have been devolved to the Northern Ireland Assembly, Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly. England remains the full responsibility of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which is centralised in London. As the sovereign state, the United Kingdom is recognised as the representative country under international law, and thus England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales are not themselves listed on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) list of countries.
The Channel Islands and the Isle of Man are British Islands, but are not under the jurisdiction of the United Kingdom. The Republic of Ireland is a separate country and sovereign state, and although part of the geographical 'British Isles', is not a part of the British Islands or the UK.
Identity within the UK
Many citizens of the United Kingdom cite "Britain", "United Kingdom" and "British" as their country and nationality, while others identify specifically with England, Northern Ireland, Scotland or Wales. Others identify primarily with their constituent country, but hold a sense of 'Britishness' in equal or high esteem. People from a mixed background sometimes ally with more than one of the constituent countries. The propensity for nationalistic feeling varies greatly across the UK, and can rise and fall over time. Generally the UK countries are considered to be a close union, with shared values, language, currency and culture, and with people moving and working freely throughout. Since the significant broadening of autonomous governance throughout the UK in the late 1990s, debate has taken place across the United Kingdom on the relative value of full independence.
Various terms have been used to describe England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. This fact is illustrated by the following two tables.
There is no term in UK law for England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales as a group of individual parts; each one was a complete incorporating union. Nevertheless, for various purposes they do refer to the areas of the former states. These are listed below:
Terminology in the Acts of Union
- The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 annexed the legal system of Wales to England to create the single entity commonly known today as England and Wales. Wales was described as the "Country, Principality and Dominion", "Dominion of Wales" or the "Dominion, Principality and Country" or "Dominion and Principality" of Wales. Outside of Wales, England was not given a specific name or term.
- The Acts of Union 1707 refer to both England and Scotland as a "Part of the united Kingdom"
- The Acts of Union 1800 use "Part" in the same way. They also use "Country" to describe Great Britain and Ireland respectively, when describing trade between them
- The Government of Ireland Act 1920 does not use any term or description to classify Northern Ireland nor indeed Great Britain.
Current Legal Terminology
The Interpretation Act 1978 provides some definitions for terms relating the countries of the United Kingdom. Use of these terms in other legislation is interpreted following the definitions in the 1978 Act. The definitions are listed below
- "England" means, subject to any alteration of boundaries under Part IV of the Local Government Act 1972, the area consisting of the counties established by section 1 of that Act, Greater London and the Isles of Scilly." This definition applies from 1 April 1974.
- "United Kingdom" means "Great Britain and Northern Ireland." This definition applies from 12 April 1927.
- "Wales" means the combined area of the 12 original administrative counties (with the addition of Monmouthshire) re-formulated into 8 new counties under section 20 of the Local Government Act 1972, as originally enacted, but subject to any alteration made under section 73 of that Act (consequential alteration of boundary following alteration of watercourse).". In 1996 these 8 'districts' were redistributed into the current 22 unitary authorities.
Note that there is no definition of Scotland or Northern Ireland. Even in the Scotland Act 1998 there is no delineation of the country, with the definition in section 126 simply providing that Scotland includes "so much of the internal waters and territorial sea of the United Kingdom as are adjacent to Scotland". See also Scottish Adjacent Waters Boundaries Order 1999 and Anglo-Scottish border.
"Countries of the United Kingdom"
The following table presents 36 reliable sources that use the term "Countries of the United Kingdom". For examples of "country", "constituent country" and other terms in use, please refer to the further tables below.
|Countries of the United Kingdom||                                   |
Other terms in use
The following table presents reliable sources for the terms most commonly-used to describe the countries of the United Kingdom. The references are listed per country, and in some instances are used more than once, when more than one country is referred to in the source. To avoid duplication, individual examples have been found wherever possible. Each term is restricted to 36 examples per use. Some of the table is still under completion.
- Number 10
- Agreement between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government Of Ireland. British-Irish Council.
- Why is England or the UK sometimes called Britain?. British Life and Culture. Woodlands Junior School.
- Devolution, Public Attitudes and National Identity. www.devolution.ac.uk. The rise of the Little Englanders. The Guardian, John Carvel, social affairs editor.
- The English question. by Michael Kenny and Richard Hayton, The Institute for Public Policy Research.
- Devolution and Britishness. Devolution and Constitutional Change. UK's Economic and Social Research Council.
- Laws in Wales Act 1535, Clause I
- Laws in Wales Act 1542
- e.g. "... to be raised in that Part of the united Kingdom now called England", "...that Part of the united Kingdom now called Scotland, shall be charged by the same Act..." Article IX
- e.g. "That, from the first Day of January one thousand eight hundred and one, all Prohibitions and Bounties on the Export of Articles, the Growth, Produce, or Manufacture of either Country, to the other, shall cease and determine; and that the said Articles shall thenceforth be exported from one Country to the other, without Duty or Bounty on such Export"; Union with Ireland Act 1800, Article Sixth.
- Moores, B (July 1987). "The changing composition of the British hospital nursing workforce 1962-1984.".
- Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS). 2001 Vital Statistics available from ONS.
- Nuffield Trust (27/11/2006). NHS Values in Wales (summary).
- Northern Ireland Statistics and Research agency (NISRA) (2006). Vital Statistics.
- ESRC Public Services Programme. Policies for Improving Public Service Performance.
- British Medical Journal (BMJ), Arthur Morris (1 May 1999). BMJ should stop confusing its readers over national differences.
- British Geriatrics Society (May 2006). THE DISCHARGE OR TRANSFER OF CARE OF FRAIL OLDER PEOPLE FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH AND SOCIAL SUPPORT. “Methods of joint working between health and social care agencies vary across the 4 countries of the United Kingdom.”
- British army. Welsh Guards.
- Working Rights. Solicitors and Legal Aid.
- Channel 4 News. Do the Scots subsidise the English?, 28 Jun 2006.
- Scottish Government Publications. INTERNATIONAL LITERATURE ON QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORKS.
- Land Rover. Takeback and recycle.
- They Work for You (25 June 2008). House of Lords debate.
- Royal College of Nursing. Evidence to the National Health Service Pay Review Body.
- Office for National Statistics. Life expectancy by health and local authorities in the United Kingdom.
- Report assesses impact of demographic changes for universities (10 July 2008).
- SARS (academic census) (2001). The Samples of Anonymised Records.
- Times Higher Education (20 March 2008). The age of uncertainty.
- UNESCO. Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
- Bat Conservation Trust (01/03/06). Bats and the Law.
- BBC News, Caroline Briggs. Eurovision's frights and delights.
- Joseph Rowntree Foundation, Lavinia Mitton. Financial inclusion in the UK: Review of policy and practice, 16 July 2008.
- Guardian online, Alice Wignall (May 13 2008). Paying for your course.
- The University of York, Social Policy Research Unit. The well-being of children in the UK.
- Telegraph, Auslan Cramb (09 Jul 2008). [Barnett formula could undermine the Union, says think tank Barnett formula could undermine the Union, says think tank].
- British Council/BBC (6 July, 2006). Living in the UK.
- Professor David Blanchflower, Bank of England (26 Feb 2007). Recent developments in the UK labour market.
- The Scotsman, Lindsay Moss. UK 'trailing other countries on cancer survival rates', 17 July 2008.
- The University of Manchester. How To Reference.
- AEA Energy and Environment. UK Smoke control areas.
- International Glaucoma Association (April 20, 2008). UK Vision Strategy - Vision 2020.
- Department of Health (October 2004). The NHS Knowledge and Skills Framework.
- University of Arizona, James E Rogers College of Law. Guide to Finding English and UK Law in the Law Library.
- Life. Live it. The case for first aid education in UK schools. author=Red Cross.
- British Embassy. Tackling the Challenge of Climate Change Together.
- The Independent, Maxine Frith. Britain's population tops 60 million for first time, 25 August 2006.
- Office for National Statistics (2004-09-17). Beginners' Guide to UK Geography: Administrative Geography. statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved on 2008-04-16.
- DCA. Retrieved on 2008-06-30. "nationally in this context will be taken to mean within the United Kingdom as a whole or within the constituent country (England, Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland), or both", at www.dca.gov.uk
- Vickers, Dan; Rees, Phil. "Creating the UK National Statistics 2001 output area classification.". Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society) 170 (2): 379(25).
- Bramley, Glen. "The Sudden Rediscovery of Housing Supply as a Key Policy Challenge.". Housing Studies 22 (2): 221(21).
- Haubrich, Dirk; McLean, Iain. "EVALUATING THE PERFORMANCE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT.". Policy Studies 27 (4): 271(23).
- Dixon, Tim. "Integrating Sustainability into Brownfield Regeneration: Rhetoric or Reality? – An Analysis of the UK Development Industry.". Journal of Property Research 23 (3): 237(31).
- Turner, Karen. "Additional precision provided by region-specific data: The identification of fuel-use and pollution-generation coefficients in the Jersey economy.". Regional Studies 40 (4): 347(18).
- Cole, Stuart. "Devolved Government and Transport—Relationships, Process and Policy.". Public Money & Management 25 (3): 179(7).
- Wells, Alan. "United Kingdom.". European Environmental Law Review 14 (6): 150(7).
- Hartley, Jean. "Innovation in Governance and Public Services: Past and Present.". Public Money & Management 25 (1): 27(8).
- Hodges, Ron; Macniven, Louise; Mellett, Howard. "Annual General Meetings of NHS Trusts: Devolving Power or Ritualising Accountability?". Financial Accountability & Management 20 (4): 377(23).
- about.com, Matt Rosenberg. Country, State, and Nation.
- Countries within a country. 10 Downing Street. Retrieved on 2007-06-13.
- England. Britannica Student Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- ISO 3166-2. ISO. Retrieved on 2008-06-30. BS ISO 3166-2:2007 (second edition released 2007-12-13) consolidates changes detailed in ISO 3166-2 Newsletter I-9 (pg 11) which uses the terms "country" to describe England and Scotland, "principality" to describe Wales, and "province" to describe Northern Ireland, at www.iso.org
- British Embassy. England. britishembassy.gov.uk. Retrieved on 2008-05-11.
- the Office for National Statistics states in its glossary that "In the context of the UK, each of the four main subdivisions (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) is referred to as a country". see statistics.gov.uk
- England Rural Development Programme 2000 - 2006: 5.1 Description of the Current Situation - "5.1.2 England is a country of some 50,351 square miles". Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs at www.defra.gov.uk
- British Embassy - What are Britain's national costumes? England: "Although England is a country rich in folklore and traditions, it has no definitive 'national' costume". British Embassy, Vilnius - Special features at www.britishembassy.gov.uk
- The Official Yearbook of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 2003 - "England is a country of mostly low hills and plains. ". 2003 Yearbook at www.statistics.gov.uk
- Civil Service Policy Hub - Performance pay for teachers (Last Updated: 12/2/2008) - "Many more schemes have appeared in recent years in other countries such as England, Sweden and Singapore". News item at www.nationalschool.gov.uk
- Results for England from the UK 2007 Survey of Public Opinion of Forestry, carried out on behalf of the Forestry Commission, November 2007 - "The same principle is of course also valid for individual countries such as England, where an impractical level of afforestation would be required" PUBLIC OPINION OF FORESTRY 2007 - ENGLAND at www.forestry.gov.uk
- The Oxford English Dictionary, in its 1893 edition, includes under "country" the meaning "3. The territory or land of a nation ; usually an independent state, or a region once independent and still distinct in race, language, institutions, or historical memories, as England, Scotland, and Ireland, in the United Kingdom, etc."
- Foreign and International Law. Library of Congress. "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the collective name of four countries, England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland."
- Europa, the European Untion Portal. The education system in the United Kingdom. "It must be remembered that the UK is actually four countries and that there are some differences in the education system across these four countries.
- British Medical Journal (BMJ). Is the English NHS underfunded?. "The NHS is broadly similar in each of the four countries, but it is funded at different levels."
- D. EVANS, E. KULA, H. SEZER (7 OCT 2005). Regional welfare weights for the UK. "Estimates of these weights are then provided for the four countries comprising the UK."
- London School of Economics. Government failing to learn valuable lessons from UK health care experiment. "the health service across all four countries."
- Ordnance Survey (28 October 2000). Mapping mission offers close-up on England.
- The Grocer (23-JUN-07). Why school policies don't make the grade. "Why school food policies don't make the grade: four countries, four sets of policies."
- Edinburgh Evening News. Our health service is the envy of the world, so let's cherish it, 07 July 2008.
- Channel 4 News. Do the Scots subsidise the English, 28 Jun 2006.
- Commonwealth Secretariat. United Kingdom - Geography.
- Research in Comparative & International Education, THERESA THONHAUSER, DAVID L. PASSMORE (2006). ISO 9000 in Education: a comparison between the United States and England. A study on “two different countries, the United States and England.”
- Birrell, Derek, Public Money & Management, Volume 27, Number 5 (November 2007). "Divergence in Policy Between Great Britain and Northern Ireland: The Case of Local Taxation".
- NHS National Library for Health (April 2008). NHS Structure: the impact of devolution. “Up until this time the NHS policy differences between the four countries had been marginal,”
- Sarah Carter, LLRX (2001). The UK Legal System. “The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland consists of four countries forming three distinct jurisdictions each having its own court system and legal profession: England & Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland.”
- Nuffield Trust (29/11/2006). Values and health policy in the European Union (summary).
- TOEFL. Four nations in one. “The UK may be relatively small, but it is extremely diverse. It is home to 60 million people and comprises four countries – England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales – each with a distinct history and culture. “
- New Policy Institute. Education-related websites.
- Post-News Education.com, The Denver Newspaper Agency. A Crucial vote in Northern Ireland, March 18, 2007. “Northern Ireland is one of four countries that make up what is known as the United Kingdom, or U.K.”
- World Wildlife Foundation. Natural Rivers Programme – UK.
- USA Today. England.
- General Teaching Council for Northern Ireland (1-May-2008). Changing Assessment Practice Process: Principles and Standards. "..in all four countries of the UK: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland."
- EADT24. Belfast trip cannot be underestimated, 21 July 2008.
- British Dental Journal (24 May 2008). "Northern Ireland turns to private sector to solve dentist shortage".
- Adfero. Mental health survey for people in Northern Ireland, 15 July 2008.
- British Council. Why come to Northern Ireland?.
- E-HEALTH-MEDIA LTD (2005). Northern Ireland unveils plans for electronic records.
- The Food Standards Agency (1 May 2007). Draft Official Feed and Food Controls Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2007.
- Pat Stacey, Herald.ie. Dignified look at tragic loss of life, July 23 2008.
- Template:Cite media “The Northern Ireland economy is the smallest of the four countries that make up the United Kingdom.”
- Olivia Fens (11/07/200). Women obtaining abortion pill online.
- The Four Countries - Social Care Information Network (27 March 2006). Leeds Workshop 27 March 2006 Report. “The workshop was designed to be an initial opportunity to bring together leading information specialists and policy makers from the four countries of the UK“
- European Union Youth Portal. Travelling Europe, The United Kingdom. "The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales."
- BBC World Service Teacher Blog - Anne Bell. Union Jack Day, 12 April 2008.
- European Commission Expert Working Group on the social determinants of health inequalities (2-3 March 2006). Tackling Health Inequalities – The UK Situation. "The UK consists of four countries England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland."
- various. "Oxford Journals 'Parliamentary Affairs' Research Articles (3 summaries)".
- Cancer Research. UK Bladder Cancer mortality statistics.
- UNICEF. UNICEF salutes Scottish Bill on right to breastfeed in public, 16 August 2002.
- CBC News. The 39th Parliament Nations within nations, November 23, 2006.
- British Embassy in the United States of America
- A publication submitted by the UK to the United Nations Economic and Social Council states Scotland is a "constituent part" and "country", but "should not be considered as a first-order administrative division".United Nations Economic and Social Council (August 2007). Ninth United Nations Conference on the standardization of Geographical Names (PDF). unstats.un.org. Retrieved on 2008-04-14.
- Explanatory Notes to Waste And Emissions Trading Act 2003
- Census 2001 - Ethnicity and religion in England and Wales
- House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 28 Feb 2000 (pt 35)
- Alex Salmond MP MSP, (nationalist) First Minister of Scotland calls Scotland a "country". First Minister Alex Salmond at openscotland.gov.uk
- Joint statement released on behalf of Helen Liddell MP, (unionist) Secretary of State for Scotland, and Jack McConnell MSP, (unionist) First Minister for Scotland, which states "Scotland is a country with a proud history, with strong traditions and customs". Scotland Office Press Release 2002-11-21 at www.scotlandoffice.gov.uk
- Britannica describes Scotland as "the most northerly of the four parts of the United Kingdom" and later as a "country" four times in its introduction to the topic (nation or subdivision is not used).Scotland at www.britannica.com
- Encarta describes Scotland as "one of the four national units that make up the United Kingdom" and later as a "country" two times in its introduction to the topic (nation or subdivision is not used).Scotland at encarta.msn.com
- Patricia Ferguson, MSP, Minister for Tourism, Culture and Sport - Scotland is a country known world-wide for its history and its landscape. Historic Scotland: Scotland's Historic Environment (Published 2007) at www.historic-scotland.gov.uk
- RURAL DEVELOPMENT REGULATION (EC) NO 1257/1999: PLAN FOR SCOTLAND. "5.2 Scotland is a country of some 30,414 square miles" Chapter 5 at www.scotland.gov.uk
- Jack McConnell MSP, (former) First Minister for Scotland - Scotland is a country with strong traditions and a proud history of achievement. Welcome Message to 'scotlandnow' at www.friendsofscotland.gov.uk
- Helen Liddell MP, (former) Secretary of State for Scotland - Scotland is a country of inventors and entrepreneurs and we have many excellent, dynamic companies. Press Release 2002-07-31 at www.scotlandoffice.gov.uk
- Wendy Alexander MSP, Leader of the Labour Party in the Scottish Parliament - "Scotland is a country I love to the core of my being." Speech to Scottish Conference by Wendy Alexander at www.scottishlabour.org.uk
- Local Government Boundary Commission for Scotland, Report Number E97002, November 1997 - 14. However, since Scotland is a country of great diversity Third Statutory Review of Electoral Arrangements at www.lgbc-scotland.gov.uk
- World Offshore Renewable Energy Report 2004-2008 - 5.3.3 Scotland is a country with potential to be at the centre of the worldwide tidal industry. Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform at www.berr.gov.uk
- David Blunkett MP, (former) Home Secretary, Speech to TUC Conference 2004-11-10 - "in the country of Scotland who are pioneering the programme of getting people to move to Scotland" Speech to TUC Conference on Managed Migration at http://press.homeoffice.gov.uk
- SECOND DIVISION, INNER HOUSE, COURT OF SESSION, XA39/03 - 9 "within Scotland" meant within the geographical limits of the country of Scotland OPINION OF THE COURT delivered by LORD JOHNSTON, 2003-12-02 at www.scotcourts.gov.uk
- RENEWABLE ENERGY INQUIRY by ENTERPRISE AND CULTURE COMMITTEE, 2004-01-22. 3.5:"Scotland is a country which sells its scenery, as the basis for its largest single industry, tourism". Evidence from SCOTTISH NATURAL HERITAGE
- Bertie Ahern, (former) Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland. ADDRESS TO THE SCOTTISH PARLIAMENT - WEDNESDAY 20 JUNE 2001 - "Scotland is a country rightly renowned for the distinguished historical contribution of its thinkers and scientists to the development of democracy and technological progress". Scottish Parliament. Parliamentary News Release at www.scottish.parliament.uk
- Andrew Hardie, Baron Hardie, (former) Lord Advocate, - "In a small country like Scotland, the courts have not had sufficient cases in the area of private law to allow the private law to be developed by judicial decision". SPEECH TO CONFERENCE ON SCOTTISH DEVOLUTION - STRATHCLYDE UNIVERSITY - 27 FEBRUARY 1998 at www.scotland.gov.uk
- Scottish Aggregates Survey 2005 - 6. These areas recognise the difficulties of defining market areas in a country like Scotland The Scottish Government Publications at http://openscotland.gov.uk
- Response from the Welsh Assembly Government to HM Treasury’s consultation on a merged fund to support UK health related research - "6.1 In 2003 Ernst and Young recommended (on the basis of experience in other countries, including Scotland)" Response at www.hm-treasury.gov.uk
- Births and Deaths June 2004 quarter - This pattern has also been observed in other countries, including Scotland. Statistics New Zealand at www2.stats.govt.nz
- Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vo1, No.1 - January-March 1995: An Outbreak of Shigella sommei infection... - "together with reports from other European countries, including Scotland, Sweden and Norway" Dispatches at www.cdc.gov
- Parliament of Ireland - "This is not just evident in Ireland but in other countries, including Scotland". Parliamentary Debates (Dáil and Seanad) 2000 at www.irlgov.ie
- Estate agency market in England and Wales - "Comparisons with markets in other countries, including Scotland" 2004 Market Study at www.oft.gov.uk
- HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE IN NORTHERN IRELAND. Neutral Citation no.  NIQB 5826, Ref:GILC5850, Delivered:5/9/07 - The law in other jurisdictions  - "I delayed the giving of judgment in this case to afford the parties an opportunity to consider certain research which I had caused to be carried out into similar provisions in other countries including Scotland, the Republic of Ireland, South Africa, New Zealand, Canada and Australia". Judgment: approved by the Court for handing down at www.courtsni.gov.uk
- The Nicholson Committee: Review of Liquor Licensing Law in Scotland, 2003 - Chapter 5, 5.5 - "we are firmly of the view that in a country such as Scotland the desirability of promoting the licensing principles" CHAPTER 5 LICENSING HOURS at www.scotland.gov.uk
- World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Is housing improvement a potential health improvement strategy? (Updated 23 February 2005) - "In countries such as Scotland, Portugal and Spain, the levels of excess winter deaths are higher than in Scandinavia" Health Evidence Network (HEN) at www.euro.who.int
- Office of the First Minister & Deputy First Minister for Northern Ireland. Policylink Bulletin 12 (June 2006): Migration Trends - "Countries such as Scotland faced with rapid demographic ageing welcome the flow of migrant workers". Policylink 12 at www.ofmdfmni.gov.uk
- UNESCO-1994. The impact of examination systems on curriculum development: an international study. Chapter 1. SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION - Geographical Scope: "To give a suitably international context to the study, seven countries were selected and agreed with UNESCO. The seven, namely Colombia, Egypt, France, Japan. Scotland. the United States of America (US) and Zimbabwe were chosen" UNESCO Report at www.unesco.org
- Wynford Vaughan-Thomas, Wynford Vaughan-Thomas's Wales, Mermaid Books 1983, ISBN 0 7181 2251 8, p8, ch1 Welcome to Wales: "Who would expect to find a country speaking its own language, and with its own fiercely defended culture and traditions, within seventy miles of the huge English urban complexes of Birmingham, Liverpool and Manchester?"
- Gwynfor Evans, Land of My Fathers, Y Lolfa 1992, ISBN 0 86243 265 0, pp434/435 ch10 Facing the British: "Arthur Henderson, ... Foreign Secretary ... 1924, believed: 'One could not imagine a country where federal self-government has a better chance of success than Wales...Given self-government Wales could become a modern Utopia.' He stressed that the smallness of the country was a great advantage from the standpoint of good government."
- Peter Berresford Ellis, Celt and Saxon - The Struggle for Britain AD 410 - 937, Constable and Company 1993, ISBN 0 09 472160 2, pp241, ch16 Do 'The British' Really Exist?: "Monoglot English clergy had been appointed to livings in Wales as a matter of course. A Dr Bowles had been given the living of Trefdaeth and Llangwyfan where, of 500 parishioners, only five had any knowledge of English. This was in 1768 and the Welsh decided to rebel. They argued that they should have a minister who spoke Welsh. The case took five years to argue. Dr Bowles's counsel was quite clear on the position of Wales: 'Wales is a conquered country, it is proper to introduce the English language, ...' "
- Wales - The Rough Guide, Mike Parker and Paul Whitfield, The Rough Guides 1997, ISBN 1-85828-245-4, p. viii/ Introduction, Para 2: "As you cross the border from England, you are, in fact, immediately aware of the different attitudes and cultures of the two countries. ..." ... "WALES AND ITS SHIFTING COUNTY BOUNDARIES. Wales is a small and thinly populated country ..."
- Prys Morgan (Ed), History of Wales 25,000 B.C. - A.D. 2000, Tempus Publishing 2001, ISBN 0 7524 1983 8, p78 ch3 Frontier Wales c1063-1282: "Of course, throughout this period Wales remained an overwhelmingly rural country, ..."
- Wales: History of a Nation, David Ross, Gedded & Grosset 2005, ISBN 1 84205 018 4, p15 Introduction: "... At its head [a Welsh national army] was the Prince of Wales, Owain Glyndwr. For five years he had resisted the might of England, ranging the strength of all Wales behind him, making treaties with the Kingdoms of France and Scotland, acting as a sovereign in his own country."
- Wales: History of a Nation, David Ross, Gedded & Grosset 2005, ISBN 1 84205 018 4, p256: "'A vineyard placed in my care is Wales, my country, To deliver unto my children, And my children's children, Intact: an eternal heritage' Saunders Lewis, Buchedd Garmon, translated by D.M. Lloyd"
- The Wikipedia article Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau says: " "Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau" (Template:Pronounced, usually translated as "Land of My Fathers", (but literally old country of my fathers) is, by tradition, the national anthem of Wales."
- Ordnance Survey (11 July 2002). Ordnance Survey spreads the word in Welsh for the Royal Welsh Show.
- Scotland is Not a Country
- London School of Economics. Government failing to learn valuable lessons from UK health care experiment. "different approaches to health policy that have been adopted by each home country since devolution."
- The Scottish Parliament. FAQ's - "Is Scotland a country? - The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the full name of the country. Scotland is a kingdom within the United Kingdom (UK)" Your Scotland Questions at www.scottish.parliament.uk
- G. K. Chesterton, "Edward VII. and Scotland" -- I am quite certain that Scotland is a nation; I am quite certain that nationality is the key of Scotland; I am quite certain that all our success with Scotland has been due to the fact that we have in spirit treated it as a nation.
- David McCrone, Scotland, Small? -- Scotland is a nation which has lived quite happily within a loose confederation, a union, and now finds itself within a bigger union - of Europe.
- Heald, Geaughan & Robb, "Financial Arrangements for UK Devolution" in Elcock & Keating Remaking the Union -- ... from the recognition that Scotland is a nation within the United Kingdom.
- Davidson, The Origins of Scottish Nationhood -- Because Scotland is a nation, and not a region or an urban district, opposition took a form which was impossible in most other parts of Britain.
- Anderson, "Fernand Braudel & National Identity" in Clark, The Annales School -- ... Scotland is a nation that is something like a quasi-state, Britain a state that is at least a quasi-nation.
- Von Beyme, "Fischer's move towards a European Constitution" in Joerges, Mény & Weiler, What kind of Constitution for what kind of Polity -- In this age of football, one whimsical definition defines the nation by the very existence of a national football team. On this definition Scotland is a nation and Bavaria not.
- Haesly, "Identifying Scotland and Wales" in Nations and Nationalism, vol. 11, no. 2 -- As they argue, 'Scotland is a nation; therefore, Scotland should become an independent nation state' ...
- Bultmann, Scottish Rights Vindicated: Identity and Nationalism in Mid-Nineteenth Century Scotland (unpub PhD [?] thesis), quotes one of William Burns' NAVSR tracts of 1854 -- so long as Scotland is a nation - by contract merely forming part of the united Empire - so long the Scottish people have a basis upon which, with consistency, they may rest such things as national demands.
- Home Office Police Research Group Crime Prevention Unit Series, December 1993, sourced 2008-06-30, Paper NO.50 - Vehicle Watch in Wales, 1: "Forces in the Principality of Wales have demonstrated a particularly high level of commitment to the Vehicle Watch concept", at www.homeoffice.gov.uk
- OFT Consultation on a market investigation reference on personal current account banking in Northern Ireland, 2005-02-11, accessed 2008-06-30, Annex A.3: "The Geographic market is defined as the Province of Northern Ireland", at www.oft.gov.uk
- about.com, Matt Rosenberg. Geography.