In chemistry, the term colligative property refers to any physical property of a dilute solution dependent on the number of solute particles present, but wholly independent of the solute's identity. Examples of colligative properties include vapor pressure, boiling point, freezing point, and osmotic pressure.
Vapor pressure of a dilute solution
The vapor pressure (Pi) of a dilute solution may be determined by Raoult's Law:
where Xj is the mole fraction of the solute and P*i is the vapor pressure of the pure solvent. The vapor pressure of a dilute solution is a colligative property because the vapor pressure reduction is independent of the solute's identity.
Boiling point elevation
Concomitant with a reduction in vapor pressure is the elevation of a dilute solution's boiling point relative to the pure solvent. The relationship between boiling point elevation () and the molality (m) of a dilute solution is expressed as follows:
where is the ebullioscopic constant of the solvent.
Freezing point depression
The relationship between freezing point depression () and the molality (m) of a dilute solution is expressed as follows:
where is the cryoscopic constant of the solvent.
Atkins, P.W. Physical Chemistry (5th ed.), New York: W.H. Freeman and Co, 1994.