# Ciphertext/Related Articles

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- Advanced Encryption Standard [r]: A US government standard issued in 2002 for a stronger block cipher to succeed the earlier Data Encryption Standard.
^{[e]} - Block cipher [r]: A symmetric cipher that operates on fixed-size blocks of plaintext, giving a block of ciphertext for each
^{[e]} - Caesar cipher [r]: One of the first ciphers, developed by Julius Caesar
^{[e]} - Cipher [r]: A means of combining plaintext (of letters or numbers, or bits), using an algorithm that mathematically manipulates the individual elements of plaintext, into ciphertext, a form unintelligible to any recipient that does not know both the algorithm and a randomizing factor called a cryptographic key
^{[e]} - Cryptography [r]: A field at the intersection of mathematics and computer science that is concerned with the security of information, typically the confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of some message.
^{[e]} - Cryptology [r]: The theory and practice of protecting the content of communications, and of defeating the protective measures
^{[e]} - Data Encryption Standard [r]: A block cipher specification issued by the U.S. government in 1976, intended for sensitive but unclassified data. It is now obsolescent, succeeded by the Advanced Encryption Standard, but still used in commercial systems.
^{[e]} - Information theory [r]: Theory of the probability of transmission of messages with specified accuracy when the bits of information constituting the messages are subject, with certain probabilities, to transmission failure, distortion, and accidental additions.
^{[e]} - Julius Caesar [r]: Roman general and politician who conquered Gaul, won a civil war, and was assassinated in 44BC.
^{[e]} - Kerckhoffs' Principle [r]: The principle, formulated by Auguste Kerckhoffs, that security in a cipher should not depend on keeping the details of the cipher secret; it should depend only on keeping the key secret.
^{[e]} - Key (cryptography) [r]: Characteristics and generation of data which, in combination with a cryptographic algorithm, introduces or removes the concealment applied to plaintext or taken to ciphertext; key management is arelated but separate discipline of secure distribution of keys and entering them into cryptosystems
^{[e]} - Key (disambiguation) [r]:
*Add brief definition or description* - Meet-in-the-middle attack [r]: An attack on a block cipher in which the attacker can calculate possible values of the same intermediate variable (the middle) in two independent ways, starting either from the input of the cipher (plaintext) or from the output ( ciphertext); he calculates some possible values each way and compares the results.
^{[e]} - One-time pad [r]: A cipher system in which the cryptographic key, i.e. the secret used to encrypt and decrypt messages, is a sequence of random values, each one of which is only ever used once, and only to encrypt one particular letter or word.
^{[e]} - Plaintext [r]: In cryptography, the unencrypted message
^{[e]} - United States intelligence community [r]: The United States' intelligence agencies coordinated by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence.
^{[e]} - Vatican City [r]: City state in Europe.
^{[e]} - World War II, Pacific [r]: The part of World War II (1937-45) fought in Asia and the Pacific Ocean between Japan and the U.S., China, Britain, Australia, and other Allies.
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