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Antineoplastic agent

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In medicine, antineoplastic agents are "substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of neoplasms".[1] Generally, antineoplastic agents are for treating malignant neoplasms such as carcinomas and sarcomas. Some of these agents have additional, non-oncologic applications, such as immunosuppression.

Classification

This classification is based on World Health Organization's Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology.[2]

Alkylating agents

ATC/DDD group L01A. Alkylating antineoplastic agents are a "class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood."[3]

Nitrogen mustard analogues

ATC/DDD group L01AA. Examples include cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, melphalan.

Alkyl sulfonates

ATC/DDD group L01AB.

Ethylene imines

ATC/DDD group L01AC.

Nitrosoureas

ATC/DDD group L01AD.

Epoxides

ATC/DDD group L01AG.

Other alkylating agents

ATC/DDD group L01AX.

Antimetabolites

ATC/DDD group L01B. Antineoplastic antimetabolites are "antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy."[4]

Folic acid analogues

ATC/DDD group L01BA. Examples include:

Purine analogues

ATC/DDD group L01BB. Examples include:

Pyrimidine analogues

ATC/DDD group L01BC. Examples include:

Plant alkaloids and other natural products

ATC/DDD group L01C.

Vinca alkaloids and analogues

ATC/DDD group L01CA.

Podophyllotoxin derivatives

ATC/DDD group L01CB. Examples include etoposide.

Colchicine derivatives

ATC/DDD group L01CC.

Taxanes

ATC/DDD group L01CD.

Other plant alkaloids and natural products

ATC/DDD group L01CX.

Cytotoxic antibiotics and related substances

ATC/DDD group L01D.

Actinomycines

ATC/DDD group L01DA.

Anthracyclines and related substances

ATC/DDD group L01DB.

Other cytotoxic antibiotics

ATC/DDD group L01DC.

Other antineoplastic agents

ATC/DDD group L01X.

Platinum compounds

ATC/DDD group L01XA examples include cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin, and satraplatin.

Methylhydrazines

ATC/DDD group L01XB.

Monoclonal antibodies

ATC/DDD group L01XC. Examples include:

Anti-EpCAM
Anti-ErbB1
Anti-ErbB2
Anti-CD3 and anti-EpCAM
  • Catumaxomab. Is a monoclonal antibody against CD3 (Entrez protein)and EpCAM (Entrez protein). "Extracorporeal PBMNC coating with catumaxomab may be an option to control intravascular cytokine release induced by therapeutic antibodies".[12]
Anti-MS4A1 (CD20 antigen)
Anti-SIGLEC3 (CD33)
Anti-CD52
  • Alemtuzumab is a "a therapeutic antibody directed against the CDw52 antigen (Entrez protein) expressed by the lymphocytes and has proven lytic abilities both in vitro and in vivo; has been sequenced".[15]
Anti-VEGF
  • Bevacizumab is an "anti-VEGF (Entrez protein) monoclonal antibody consisting of humanized murine antibody with antigen-binding, complementary-determining regions from murine VEGF".[16]

Sensitizers used in photodynamic/radiation therapy

ATC/DDD group L01XD.

Protein kinase inhibitors

ATC/DDD group L01XE. Examples include imatinib, gefitinib, erlotinib, sunitinib, sorafenib, dasatinib, lapatinib, nilotinib, and temsirolimus.

Other antineoplastic agents

ATC/DDD group L01XX. Examples include hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea), tretinoin, celecoxib and meloxicam.

Dosing

Dosage may be by the area under the curve (AUC), expressed at mg/mL * min.

References

  1. Anonymous (2017), Antineoplastic agent (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  2. Anonymous. WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology. World Health Organization. Retrieved on 2009-02-04.
  3. Anonymous (2017), Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. Anonymous (2017), Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. Anonymous (2017), Methotrexate (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  6. Anonymous (2017), Mercaptopurine (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  7. Anonymous (2017), cytarabine (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  8. Anonymous (2017), edrecolomab [Substance Name] (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  9. Van Cutsem E, Köhne CH, Hitre E, Zaluski J, Chang Chien CR, Makhson A et al. (2009). "Cetuximab and chemotherapy as initial treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer.". N Engl J Med 360 (14): 1408-17. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa0805019. PMID 19339720. Research Blogging.
  10. Anonymous (2017), Panitumumab [Substance Name] (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  11. Anonymous (2017), Trastuzumab [Substance Name] (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  12. Anonymous (2017), Catumaxomab [Substance Name] (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  13. Anonymous (2017), Rituximab [Substance Name] (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  14. Anonymous (2017), Gemtuzumab [Substance Name] (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  15. Anonymous (2017), Alemtuzumab [Substance Name] (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  16. Anonymous (2017), Bevacizumab [Substance Name] (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.