Amikacin, also called amikacina, amikacine, amikacinum and BB-K8, is a broad-spectrum aminoglycoside type of antibiotic derived from kanamycin that is used to treat severe infections due to gram-negative aerobic bacteria. It is active against species of E. coli, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Providencia and Klebsiella-Enterobacter-Serratia and some mycobacteria. It can be used for Gram-positive bacterial infections, but better treatment options are generally used. Like other aminoglycosides, it shows little effect on anaerobic bacteria, fungi and viruses.
Its IUPAC chemical name is (2S)-4-amino-N-[(1R,2S,3S,4R,5S)-5-amino-2-[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-4-amino-3,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy-4-[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-6-(aminomethyl)-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxan- 2-yl]oxy-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-2-hydroxybutanamide and it has chemical formula C22H43N5O13.
An increased risk of nephrotoxicity occurs when amikacin is taken in combination with cephalosporin or related compounds, including ceforanide, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, cefalotin, cephapirin, cisplatin, cefamandole, cefazolin, cefonicid, cefoperazone, cefotetan, cefoxitin, ceftizoxime and cefradine. Amikacin also increases the effects of muscle relaxants including atracurium, doxacurium, gallamine Triethiodide, metocurine, mivacurium, pancuronium, pipecuronium, rocuronium, succinylcholine, tubocurarine and vecuronium. Increased Ototoxicity occurs when amikacin is used with bumetanide, furosemide, ethacrynic acid or torasemide. Thalidomide use increases renal toxicity.
Amikacin is sold under the following brand names:
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