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  • ...uld be happy to accept it. But a person who subscribes to '''philosophical skepticism''' is different: they question or reject the possibility of knowledge mo Philosophical skepticism goes back as far as the ancient Greeks, with the argument put forward by
    2 KB (345 words) - 20:35, 5 October 2008
  • 78 B (9 words) - 18:10, 30 August 2009
  • Auto-populated based on [[Special:WhatLinksHere/Philosophical skepticism]]. Needs checking by a human.
    442 B (55 words) - 00:30, 12 January 2010

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  • ...name="Smith">Smith name, George H.. "A Note on the History and Meaning of Skepticism", Resources for Independent Thinking, http://www.rit.org/essays/history. *Academic: Named after [[Plato]]'s Academy, it is the philosophy that nothing can be known for certain.
    931 B (138 words) - 20:02, 28 November 2020
  • ...uld be happy to accept it. But a person who subscribes to '''philosophical skepticism''' is different: they question or reject the possibility of knowledge mo Philosophical skepticism goes back as far as the ancient Greeks, with the argument put forward by
    2 KB (345 words) - 20:35, 5 October 2008
  • ...schandra Chatterjee and Dhirendramohan Datta. ''An Introduction to Indian Philosophy''. Eighth Reprint Edition. (University of Calcutta: 1984). p. 5, footnote Self-described atheists tend toward [[secularism|secular]] philosophies such as [[humanism]], [[rationalism]], and [[naturalism]]. However, ther
    85 KB (12,665 words) - 20:34, 14 July 2014
  • {{r|philosophy}} {{r|Philosophical skepticism}}
    1 KB (160 words) - 15:42, 16 August 2012
  • ...much, knowledge at all. On what grounds can we embrace, or reject, such [[skepticism]]? ...e land, it will help to look at some common opinions. Many, perhaps most, philosophers hold that knowledge is something like [[JTB analysis|justified, true bel
    5 KB (747 words) - 04:07, 19 August 2016
  • In the writings of philosopher [[Willard Van Orman Quine|Willard v. O. Quine]], he discusses the 'indete ...of indeterminacy,<ref name=Quine1/> is widely discussed in modern analytic philosophy:
    9 KB (1,331 words) - 14:12, 10 August 2013
  • ...ethical nihilism, but was ultimately no more than a manifestation of this philosophy. The nihilist rebellion sustained a philosophical and literary movement that "flourished in the first decade after the [[
    21 KB (3,192 words) - 02:36, 6 October 2013
  • ...losophy of religion applies philosophy to religion, while theology applies philosophical methods to questions and problems within a religion. There is consider ...tions of the possibility and nature or [[religious language]], and [[Moral philosophy|ethical]] questions concerning the relationship between morality and a god
    23 KB (3,596 words) - 00:12, 18 June 2010
  • ...literary, philosophical and sociological matters. The ultimate goal of the philosophes was human progress; by concentrating on social and material sciences, the ...the Philosophes were inspired by the thoughts of [[René Descartes]], the skepticism of the Libertins and the popularisation of science by [[Bernard de Fonte
    2 KB (226 words) - 23:06, 22 March 2008
  • ..., 1930&ndash;October 8, 2004) was an [[Algeria]]n-born [[France|French]] [[philosopher]]. ...losophical position regarding the status of truth and knowledge in Western philosophy.
    3 KB (372 words) - 16:31, 8 June 2009
  • ''This is a supplement to the [[philosophy]] article.'' ...ers, in chronological order, listing Western philosophers and then Eastern philosophers.''
    2 KB (325 words) - 13:09, 25 December 2009
  • ...includes the most complete surviving account of ancient Greek and Roman [[skepticism]]. ...mmitted to the politics of the [[French Revolution]] and to the spirit and philosophy of the [[Scottish Enlightenment|Enlightenment]]. Meetings were held every
    16 KB (2,519 words) - 14:04, 4 October 2013
  • ...keptical side tells me not to jump to conclusions... Uh oh, is my vodkated philosophizing side coming out? --[[User:Joe Quick|Joe Quick]] 22:47, 7 November 2007
    22 KB (3,525 words) - 14:13, 6 April 2015
  • The '''''Discourse on the Method''''' is a [[philosophy|philosophical]] treatise published by [[René Descartes]] in 1637. Its full name is ' ...tatement in Latin, ''[[Cogito ergo sum]]'', is in §7 of ''[[Principles of Philosophy]]''.) In addition, one of the works published with it, ''[[La Géométrie]
    10 KB (1,742 words) - 14:15, 26 September 2007
  • While skeptical criticism of superstition dates back to ancient times (e.g., the writings ...nvestigation of Claims of the Paranormal]] (now known as the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry)
    5 KB (718 words) - 19:06, 22 March 2009
  • ...'Origin of Our Ideas on the Sublime and Beautiful'', his most [[Philosophy|philosophical]] work; it is a founding manifesto of [[Romanticism]], which came to do ...ce happening there. Rejecting [[Jean Jacques Rousseau]] (1712-78) and the philosophes, Burke said the popular will does not really exist, but that the ancient
    9 KB (1,402 words) - 01:49, 13 August 2011
  • There are many websites set up to air skeptical opinions particularly concerning claims for the effectiveness of remedies ...p://www.csicop.org/resources/organizations.html International directory of skeptic organisations]
    4 KB (566 words) - 18:24, 29 November 2007
  • ...s of Natural Philosophy (c1846), including BOOK III. RULES OF REASONING IN PHILOSOPHY]</ref> Scientists propose explanations &mdash; called [[hypothesis|hypothe ...subject/philosophy/works/ge/carnap.htm Theories and Nonobservables] from ''Philosophical Foundations of Physics'' Basic Books, ASIN B0000CN9NI </ref> According
    60 KB (9,261 words) - 20:41, 23 September 2013
  • ...s of Natural Philosophy (c1846), including BOOK III. RULES OF REASONING IN PHILOSOPHY]</ref> Scientists propose explanations &mdash; called [[hypothesis|hypothe ...subject/philosophy/works/ge/carnap.htm Theories and Nonobservables] from ''Philosophical Foundations of Physics'' Basic Books, ASIN B0000CN9NI </ref> Observatio
    64 KB (9,988 words) - 11:18, 26 May 2021
  • ...ical illness. These are not recognized as such in fundamental chiropractic philosophy. Instead, the chiropractic evaluation is aimed to make chiropractic diagno ...CAM methods in their practice. Reforms tend to have beliefs, toward a more philosophical scientific view,<ref name="reformers">
    63 KB (9,315 words) - 17:46, 30 April 2011
  • ...othesis, which is ancient indeed, and hath been very generally received by philosophers, but of which I could find no solid proof. The hypothesis I mean, is, Th ...f philosophers, to admit a hypothesis, which, in my opinion, overturns all philosophy, all religion and virtue, and all common sense ..."
    7 KB (1,149 words) - 14:09, 16 February 2011
  • ...interpretation of experiments. He envisioned chemistry science as natural philosophy, and as a key to understand how nature operates, at the level of its simp ...automaton, his own words. He advocated a corpuscular view of nature and a philosophy based on Descartes' application of a mathematical and experimental approac
    13 KB (2,087 words) - 01:54, 20 May 2010
  • ...search after truth, has a very long history, associated especially with [[philosophy]] and [[religion]]. While these terms used in many ways, it often means n ...ers ''par excellence''--and, not surprisingly, both were associated with [[skepticism]] and had some well-developed ideas about the possibility and conditions
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  • |align="center" colspan="2" bgcolor="gold"|'''Philosopher''' | [[Philosophy of Mind]], [[Mathematics]], [[Cartesianism]], [[Rationalism]], [[Foundatio
    17 KB (2,634 words) - 23:36, 19 March 2010
  • ==Pseudoscience and the philosophy of science== ...what [[science]] is from what it is not is a fundamental problem of the [[philosophy of science]], known as the [[problem of demarcation]].
    39 KB (6,025 words) - 11:45, 10 October 2013
  • ...e Structure of Scientific Revolutions''' is an epoch-making book about the philosophy—and to a lesser extent the sociology—of [[Scientific method|science]] Kuhn's philosophy has a strong historical outlook, as illustrated by the following quotation
    16 KB (2,443 words) - 18:39, 25 January 2011
  • ...ent]]. Although in recent years interest in Hume's work has centred on his philosophical writing, it was as an historian that he first gained recognition and re ...ut Hume's criticism of religion prevented him from becoming a professor of philosophy in [[Edinburgh]] in 1744. His convictions also prevented him from advancem
    10 KB (1,706 words) - 17:50, 2 October 2013
  • A numerous and varied set of traditions have evolved from the first-century philosophy and teachings of Jesus Christ, as recorded in the [[New Testament]], rende ...and Gjesdal, Kristin, "''Hermeneutic''s",''' The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2009 Edition)''', Edward N. Zalta (ed.), [http://plato.stanford.ed
    32 KB (4,698 words) - 09:17, 26 October 2013
  • ...' (from the Latin ''Deus'', meaning [[God]]) is a [[Religion|religious]] [[philosophy]] and movement that became prominent in [[England]], [[France]], and the [ ...ly with the terms "theism" and "theist", respectively. ... Theologians and philosophers of the seventeenth century began to give a different signification to th
    59 KB (9,153 words) - 13:55, 10 October 2013
  • ...es in their respective fields, and both men were initially met with strong skepticism and resistance to the inevitable conclusions that their discoveries led ...arliest observations were published by the Royal Society in its journal: [[Philosophical Transactions]]. Amongst these published observations were Van Leeuwenh
    13 KB (1,950 words) - 20:41, 15 November 2010
  • ...e first known culture to actively explore geography as a [[science]] and [[philosophy]]. While maps had been made millennia earlier in [[Sumer]], the Greeks wer [[Thales]] of Miletus is one of the first known philosophers to have wondered about the shape of the world. He proposed that the worl
    17 KB (2,565 words) - 11:36, 9 June 2009
  • ...ne should not be construed as definitive. It draws from fields including [[philosophy]] and [[psychology]] but also [[theater]] and [[business]] and [[computer * [[Baruch Spinoza|Spinoza]], a [[rationalism|rationalist]] philosopher from seventeenth century [[Europe]]. His [[book]] ''[[The Ethics (Spinoza
    84 KB (13,081 words) - 06:17, 8 October 2013
  • ...ne in terms of which to verify statements about science. In this sense the philosophy of science must be empirical and not merely tautological. The '''philosophy of science''' is the study of the assumptions, foundations, and implicatio
    31 KB (4,648 words) - 10:07, 26 October 2013
  • ...'' is an abstract, intellectual discourse–in Greek, φιλοσοφία ''philosophia'' means "love of wisdom"–that has attracted many of the brightest minds == What does ''philosophy'' mean? ==
    27 KB (4,247 words) - 17:40, 2 April 2011
  • ...''neo-positivism''') is a school of philosophy that combines [[Positivism (philosophy)|positivism]]&mdash;which states that the only authentic knowledge is scie ...m denied the soundness of [[metaphysics]] and large swathes of traditional philosophy, and affirmed that statements about metaphysics, religion and some claims
    30 KB (4,340 words) - 11:14, 18 October 2013
  • ==Early philosophical tradition== ..., astronomy and geometry in schools.<ref>''Protagoras'' (318d-f)</ref> The philosophers of Ancient Greece had begun the project of building knowledge from found
    22 KB (3,288 words) - 23:53, 9 July 2010
  • ...'' (May 18, 1891&ndash;September 14, 1970) was an influential [[Philosophy|philosopher]] who was active in central Europe before 1935 and in the [[United States ...ysics department said it was too philosophical, and [[Bruno Bauch]] of the philosophy department said it was pure physics. Carnap then wrote another thesis, und
    15 KB (2,247 words) - 23:07, 8 April 2014
  • ...e, Muhammad’s rule over Medina is viewed as the golden age of Islam. The philosopher [[Plato]] gives us a model for how Muhammad is viewed: as a just ruler. I ...ns, and they were then read by Muslims. The result was the birth of Arabic philosophy. Hundreds of words were borrowed from Persian and Syriac or coined in Arab
    75 KB (12,472 words) - 09:53, 19 February 2019
  • ...niversity of Michigan) | [http://books.google.com/books?id=2k1XdB3sfLYC&dq=philosophical+essays+manchester+dalton&source=gbs_navlinks_s Google Books preview.]</ ...gnition early on for its important contribution to chemical understanding, skepticism persisted for many decades after its introduction, even in England.<ref
    26 KB (4,141 words) - 10:20, 16 October 2013
  • The '''subjective–objective dichotomy''', a longstanding [[Philosophy|philosophical]] topic, is concerned with the analysis of human experience, and of wha :<font face="Gill Sans MT">"There is a common philosophical tendency...to conceive of the realm of belief and attitude as clearly d
    82 KB (12,424 words) - 20:58, 2 August 2016
  • The concept is based on [[materialism]], the [[philosophy of mind]] that argues that the human spirit is entirely composed of a very ...]]s. Life extensionists compare cryopreservation skeptics with the cloning skeptics of the recent past. Journalists routinely interview scientists who dismiss
    54 KB (8,068 words) - 03:27, 6 October 2013
  • ...ry and Confirmation in Evolutionary Psychology] (in The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Psychology) Edouard Machery concludes: ...of uneven quality. However, there is little reason to endorse a principled skepticism toward evolutionary psychology: Although clearly fallible, the discovery
    25 KB (3,643 words) - 10:59, 15 September 2013
  • ...ring and testing scientific hypotheses? Since the birth of modern science, philosophers, scientists, and other thinkers have wrestled with this fundamental ques * Editor Peter Achinstein includes works by scientists and philosophers of science to offer a new perspective on the nature of scientific reason
    14 KB (2,214 words) - 21:43, 14 July 2009
  • ...|newspaper=The Washington Post}}</ref> but many officials in the DoD were skeptical that Turkey will honor it's commitments.<ref>{{cite web|last=Rubin|first= == Philosophy ==
    96 KB (13,517 words) - 15:46, 17 December 2021
  • ...t some believed were directed by [[extraterrestrial intelligence]]s—some skeptics called this "mass hysteria" or "mass delusion".<ref>{{citation | publisher = Committee for Skeptical Inquiry}}</ref>
    24 KB (3,580 words) - 18:35, 15 September 2020
  • *''Science and Skepticism'' by John N.W. Watkins, 1984 ...ss, 2001. ISBN 0-8223-2659-0. Explains how Imre Lakatos developed Popper's philosophy into a historicist and critical theory of scientific method.
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  • ...d June 5, 1723 O.S. / June 16 N.S. – July 17, 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher who made a major contributor to the modern perception of free market [[ec ...of 15, Smith entered the [[University of Glasgow]], where he studied moral philosophy under "the never-to-be-forgotten" (as Smith called him) [[Francis Hutcheso
    22 KB (3,614 words) - 11:30, 13 September 2013
  • ...reer was in [[rhetoric]], the art of persuasion and public speaking, and [[philosophy]]. He taught in Thagaste and Carthage, but desired to travel to Rome where ...e of making real progress in his quest, although he eventually lapsed into skepticism.
    30 KB (4,796 words) - 00:21, 11 February 2010
  • ...infamous discussions in ''[[Philosophy (journal)|Philosophy]]'' with moral philosopher [[Mary Midgley]].</ref> Dawkins extended his theories with his 1982 work Dawkins's position as a prominent atheist and '[[skepticism|skeptic]]'<ref>This word uses the U.S. spelling in this context.</ref> has led to a
    4 KB (670 words) - 13:50, 18 October 2013
  • ...d States]] constitution and Bill of Rights, the [[Magna Carta]] and in the philosophical work of [[Plato]], [[Aristotle]] and [[Thomas Aquinas]]. From the rule ...e structures. When the same is argued with regard to governments, many are skeptical - pointing to the fact that a person is born in a particular country and
    6 KB (1,003 words) - 03:43, 20 February 2010
  • ...arpentier]], investigated these themes, influenced by the [[Phenomenology (philosophy)|phenomenology]] of [[Husserl]] and [[Heidegger]] or the [[existentialism] ...he nature of time, [[infinity]], [[mirror]]s, [[labyrinth]]s, [[reality]], philosophy, and identity. A number of stories focus on fantastic themes, such as a li
    44 KB (6,841 words) - 04:32, 8 October 2013
  • |title=Why Skepticism is Good: My Reply to Clay Shirky |url=http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2008/07/why-skepticism-is-good-my-reply-to-clay-shirky/ }}</ref> Carr's main argument is that t
    57 KB (8,662 words) - 02:10, 3 April 2010
  • ...y Amsterdam press, (1994) ISBN 90-5383-341-2<br>English translation: "[the skeptic] Beyerstein (1992:3) estimates the number to be 6 million; Riti & Theodore ...little relatively to dwell upon, or at least nothing very distinctive. His philosophical views are simplistic, eclectic, and essentially unoriginal." <ref>Babb,
    47 KB (7,178 words) - 10:45, 18 October 2013
  • Philosopher [[Hegel]] gave a central role to the "hero", personalized by [[Napoleon]] ...rare in the second part of the 20th century. Most [[Philosophy of history|philosophers of history]] contend that the motive forces in [[history]] can best be d
    14 KB (2,090 words) - 02:59, 13 November 2011
  • ...Brigandt & Alan Love: ''Reductionism in biology; Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy''</font> .../> "The reductionist hypothesis may still be a topic for controversy among philosophers, but among the great majority of active scientists I think it is accepte
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  • ...e by [[René Descartes|Descartes]] in [[Principles of Philosophy|Principia philosophiae]] (1644). Until that time, forces between two bodies that are not in dir ...e's views on the nature of motion were incorporated into medieval natural philosophy: a heavy object has as its natural place the center of the universe (which
    25 KB (4,057 words) - 14:08, 15 December 2010
  • ...ancient philosophy, through the works of medieval scholastics such as the philosopher-theologian [[Thomas Aquinas|Saint Thomas Aquinas]] (1225-1274), who argue ...chmaker god|"watchmaker analogy"]], one of the best known metaphors in the philosophy of science, as an argument for the existence of God.<ref>*{{Gutenberg auth
    41 KB (6,423 words) - 15:03, 14 February 2021
  • ...hardly an accident that, with the exception of the Jew, Spinoza, all great philosophers since Descartes have sprung from Protestantism, and that most of them ha ...to attain real and sure belief in God. Had the new science issued only in skepticism or materialism, it must have disintegrated Protestantism. But when it br
    57 KB (9,349 words) - 12:52, 11 October 2013
  • ...dolescence by recommending and providing books on science, mathematics and philosophy. ...no. 2 (Winter 2000): 355–389, on 370.</ref> He obtained his [[Doctor of Philosophy|doctorate]] under [[Alfred Kleiner]] at the [[University of Zurich]] after
    69 KB (10,573 words) - 06:33, 15 September 2013
  • ...from non-living matter. This concept goes back to at least 330BC when the philosopher [[Aristotle]] observed that when meat is left to decay, maggots would app ...mouse nibbling at the box within a few days. Even in the 1600s there were skeptics about spontaneous generation in the scholarly community, including [[Franc
    2 KB (316 words) - 03:45, 29 January 2009
  • '''Protagoras''' (c. 481-411 B.C.), a Greek [[Philosophy|philosopher]], was born at [[Abdera]]. In the [[Protagoras (dialogue)|dialogue]] with ...w fragments have survived. In Truth, by way of justifying his rejection of philosophy or science, he maintained that "man is the measure of all things - of what
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  • ...was Wright's [[shifting balance theory]] of evolution. There has been much skepticism among evolutionary biologists as to whether these rather delicate condit ==Wright and philosophy==
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  • ...She and Kirk became known for their hospitality, welcoming many political, philosophical, and literary figures in their Mecosta house (known as "Piety Hill"), a ...hysical reasoning related only to modern philosophy's attempt to eliminate skeptical doubt from its premises and hence from its conclusions."<ref> see [http:
    11 KB (1,620 words) - 05:02, 21 July 2009
  • ...or any common type."'' (intoductory sentence)</ref> <ref>Thomas Huxley was skeptical of Owen's contributions in this particular respect. (TH Huxley (1894)[htt ...tion" of the laws governing life would "henceforth be the great aim of the philosophical naturalist." <ref>See The Life of Richard Owen, by his grandson, Rev. R
    12 KB (1,906 words) - 13:52, 18 June 2011
  • ...Hofstadter joined the [[Young Communist League]]. In spite of majoring in philosophy, Hofstadter wrote a senior thesis titled "The Tariff and Homestead Issues ...University of Chicago Press, 2006), 22.</ref> After taking a [[Doctor of Philosophy|Ph.D.]] at Columbia he taught at the [[University of Maryland]] and at Col
    12 KB (1,733 words) - 10:23, 3 September 2013
  • ...pitalist]] op-ed pieces for the campus newspaper. In spite of majoring in philosophy, Hofstadter wrote a senior thesis titled "The Tariff and Homestead Issues ...University of Chicago Press, 2006), 22.</ref> After taking a [[Doctor of Philosophy|Ph.D.]] at Columbia he taught at the [[University of Maryland]] and at Col
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  • :Lerner C, 'Report on the history of chiropractic' [http://www.philosophyofchiropractic.com/Lerner.pdf L.E. Lee papers], Palmer College Library Arch ...lished the first book on chiropractic, ''Modernized Chiropractic - Special Philosophy; A Distinct System''. DD Palmer objected vigorously to the mixing of chiro
    21 KB (3,195 words) - 18:37, 1 November 2010
  • ===Degrees of Skepticism=== ...e surprised at the suggestion that Jesus belonged to a Hellenistic gentile philosophical movement--especially one famed for such eccentric figures as [[Diogenes
    20 KB (3,121 words) - 20:43, 6 May 2015
  • ...a in the nineteenth century, religion began to be approached secularly and skeptically. The result was a series of hostile understandings of religion. The ide ...into a systematic explanation or theology, which can be studied logically, philosophically, or theologically.
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  • ...But the problem can be translated slightly, with just as much [[philosophy|philosophical]] rigor, by imagining that there is a map with regions. Inside each reg ...shed in 1976.<ref name=Math7/> But their discoveries were marked with some skepticism, and it eventually led to the publication in 1989 explaining their proof
    22 KB (3,569 words) - 18:00, 15 March 2013
  • ...he [[geometry|geometrical]] benefits of the [[Copernican system]] with the philosophical benefits of the [[Ptolemaic system]] into his own model of the universe ...n Rome decided officially that the heliocentric model was contrary to both philosophy and Scripture, and could be discussed only as a computational convenience
    23 KB (3,568 words) - 20:23, 18 August 2009
  • ...tence and properties he predicted, an event that began to dispel the early skepticism of those who scoffed at the 'fantasy' of a law of chemistry that relied ...chemical elements. This issue forms the basis of what is perhaps the most philosophical aspect of the periodic system...
    29 KB (4,357 words) - 00:48, 2 October 2013
  • ...><u>Concluding Paragraph:</u></b> So, what is disease? It seems to me that philosophers have answered the question relatively well, given the constraints of try ...ce, but in many other areas contradictory research findings have generated skepticism and even indifference among the general public for whom recommendations
    31 KB (4,553 words) - 23:17, 18 July 2016
  • ...self awareness, previously accessible through the writings of existential philosophers such as [[Jean-Paul Sartre]] and [[Friedrich Nietzsche]]. Critics of psychotherapy are skeptical of the healing power of a psychotherapeutic relationship. Since any inte
    33 KB (4,781 words) - 08:55, 6 April 2012
  • ...ral events over the role of journalism in a [[democracy]]. Their differing philosophies still characterize a debate and continues to date at a time we say we en While Lippman's journalistic philosophy might be more acceptable to government leaders, Dewey's approach is a bett
    42 KB (6,486 words) - 00:59, 12 February 2010
  • ...izing effect between Christians who hold to the position and those who are skeptical of or disagree with them.<ref name="consvprots">{{cite journal | author=C ...g basis for their view. Quiverfull adherents typically maintain that their philosophy is first about an open and accepting attitude toward the possibility of bi
    42 KB (6,325 words) - 01:19, 6 March 2010