Difference between revisions of "Pyrococcus furiosus"

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| binomial_authority = Erauso et al. 1993
 
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'''''Pyrococcus furiosus''''' is a heat-requiring [[extremophile]] species of [[Archaea]], ([[procaryote]]s with a different ancestry than ordinary bacteria--and possibly everything else).  It is one of the few organisms identified as possessing enzymes containing [[tungsten]], an element rarely found in biological molecules.
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'''''Pyrococcus furiosus''''' is an [[extremophile]] species of [[Archaea]].  
 
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==Properties==
 
==Properties==
''Pyrococcus furiosus'' is noted for its rapid doubling time of 37 minutes under its unusual optimal conditions.
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''Pyrococcus furiosus'' is noted for its rapid doubling time of 37 minutes under optimal conditions.
 
It appears as mostly regular cocci of 0.8 µm to 1.5 µm diameter with
 
It appears as mostly regular cocci of 0.8 µm to 1.5 µm diameter with
 
monopolar polytrichous flagellation. It grows between 70 ºC and 103 ºC,
 
monopolar polytrichous flagellation. It grows between 70 ºC and 103 ºC,
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[[glucose]].
 
[[glucose]].
  
''Pyrococcus furiosus'' has an unusual [[glycolysis|glycolytic]] pathway: its [[hexokinase]] and [[phosphofructokinase]] hydrolize [[ADP]], instead of [[ATP]]. Moreover, although it contains a [[glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase]], this enzyme is repressed during glycolysis. Glyceraldehyde-3-P oxidation to glycerate-3-P is instead performed in a single step (without ATP formation) by a tungsten-containing glyceraldehyde-3-P:ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Electrons released in glycolysis are transferred by a [4Fe-4S] ferredoxin to a membrane-bound [[hydrogenase]], which reduces H<sup>+</sup> to H<sub>2</sub>, and uses the released energy to create a proton gradient, which enables ATP synthesis through an ATP synthetase.  
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==Uses==
 
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The [[enzymes]] of ''Pyrococcus furiosus'' are extremely thermostable. Consequently [[DNA Polymerase]] from ''Pyrococcus furiosus'', are often used in the [[Polymerase Chain Reaction]], with the relevant enzyme is known as [[Pfu]].
 
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==Discovery==
 
==Discovery==
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==The extremophile's scientific name==
 
==The extremophile's scientific name==
 
The name ''Pyrococcus'' means 'fireball' in Latin, to refer to the extremophile's round shape and ability to grow in temperatures of around 100 degrees Celsius. The species name ''furiosus'' means 'rushing', and refers to the extremophile's doubling time.
 
The name ''Pyrococcus'' means 'fireball' in Latin, to refer to the extremophile's round shape and ability to grow in temperatures of around 100 degrees Celsius. The species name ''furiosus'' means 'rushing', and refers to the extremophile's doubling time.
 
==Uses==
 
The [[enzymes]] of ''Pyrococcus furiosus'' as would obviously be expected, are extremely thermostable. Consequently [[DNA Polymerase]] from ''Pyrococcus furiosus'', are often used in the [[Polymerase Chain Reaction]], with the relevant enzyme known as [[Pfu]]. At temperatures where other interfering enzymes are destroyed, the activity of this enzyme remains. 
 
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
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| pages = 134&ndash;57
 
| pages = 134&ndash;57
 
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* van der Oost J, Schut G, Kengen SW, Hagen WR, Thomm M, de Vos WM. (1998)The Ferredoxin-dependent Conversion of Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus Represents a Novel Site of Glycolytic Regulation  [http://www.jbc.org/cgi/reprint/273/43/28149 J Biol Chem. 273:28149-28154]
 
* Silva PJ, van den Ban EC, Wassink H, Haaker H, de Castro B, Robb FT, Hagen WR. (2000) Enzymes of hydrogen metabolism in Pyrococcus furiosus. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1432-1327.2000.01745.x Eur. J. Bioch., 267: 6541-6550 ]
 
* Rajat Sapra, Karine Bagramyan, and Michael W. W. Adams (2003) A simple energy-conserving system: Proton reduction coupled to proton translocation. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1331436100 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 100, 7545-7550]
 
 
  
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[[Category:Archaea]]
 
[[Category:CZ Live]]
 
[[Category:CZ Live]]
[[Category:Biology Workgroup]]
 

Revision as of 19:46, 2 November 2006

Pyrococcus furiosus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Archaea
Phylum: Euryarchaeota
Class: Thermococci
Order: Thermococcales
Family: Thermococcaceae
Genus: Pyrococcus
Species: P. furiosus
Binomial name
Pyrococcus furiosus
Erauso et al. 1993

Pyrococcus furiosus is an extremophile species of Archaea.

Properties

Pyrococcus furiosus is noted for its rapid doubling time of 37 minutes under optimal conditions. It appears as mostly regular cocci of 0.8 µm to 1.5 µm diameter with monopolar polytrichous flagellation. It grows between 70 ºC and 103 ºC, with an optimum temperature of 100 ºC, and between pH 5 and 9 (with an optimum at pH 7). It grows well on yeast extract, maltose, cellobiose, ß-glucans, starch, and protein sources (tryptone, peptone, casein and meat extracts). Growth is very slow, or nonexistent, on amino acids, organic acids, alcohols, and most carbohydrates (including glucose, fructose, lactose and galactose).

The ability to grow on polysaccharides (maltose, cellobiose, starch) but not on the monomeric sugars suggests that oligosaccharides with various degrees of polymerization may be imported into the cell, and only afterwards hydrolyzed to glucose.

Uses

The enzymes of Pyrococcus furiosus are extremely thermostable. Consequently DNA Polymerase from Pyrococcus furiosus, are often used in the Polymerase Chain Reaction, with the relevant enzyme is known as Pfu.

Discovery

Pyrococcus furiosus was originally isolated anaerobically from geothermally heated marine sediments with temperatures between 90 ºC and 100 ºC collected at the beach of Porto Levante, Vulcano Island, Italy. It was first described by Dr Karl Stetter of the University of Regensburg in Germany, and a colleague, Dr Gerhard Fiala.

Genome

The sequencing of the complete genome of Pyrococcus furiosus was completed in 2001 by scientists at the University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute The Maryland team found that the genome had 1,908 kilobases, coding for some 2,065 proteins.

The extremophile's scientific name

The name Pyrococcus means 'fireball' in Latin, to refer to the extremophile's round shape and ability to grow in temperatures of around 100 degrees Celsius. The species name furiosus means 'rushing', and refers to the extremophile's doubling time.

References

  • Fiala G. and Stetter K.O. (1986). "Pyrococcus furiosus sp. nov. represents a novel genus of marine heterotrophic archaebacteria growing optimally at 100°C". Archives of Microbiology 145: 56–61.
  • Robb F.T., Maeder D.L., Brown J.R., DiRuggiero J., Stump M.D., Yeh R.K., Weiss R.B., Dunn D.M. (2001). "Genomic sequence of hyperthermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus: implications for physiology and enzymology". Methods in Enzymology 330: 134–57.