Optimization (mathematics)

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In mathematics, the term optimization refers to study of problems in which one seeks for a minimum or a maximum of a real function within a given allowed set. This problem can be presented in the following way:

Given: a function f : A R from some set A to the real numbers
Find: an element x0 in A such that f(x0) ≤ f(x) for all x in A (minimization) or such that f(x0) ≥ f(x) for all x in A (maximization).