Mikhail Bakunin

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Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (30 May 1814 - 1 July 1876) (Russian: Михаил Александрович Бакунин) was Russian revolutionary, well-known member of International Workingmen Association and theorist of collectivist anarchism.

Biography

Mikhail Bakunin was born in 30 May (18 May old style) 1814 in Pryamukhino village in the family of Russian nobles. In 1840 he got abroat, studied philosophy in Berlin. In 1842 in Arnold Ruge's "Deutsche Jahrbucher" he wrote his first article "Die Reaction in Deutschland" ("Reaction in Germany"). Refusing the order of tsarist government to return to Russia, he forfeited all rights and become a formal emigrant. In Paris he met Prudhon, participated in activities of Polish emigration circles. He also actively participated in French Revolution of 1848, then in Prague uprising, then in 1849 in Saxon uprising. After its crash Bakunin was held for 2 years in different prisons of Saxonia and Austria and in 1851 he was extradited to Russia, where was imprisoned in various prisons and finally in Syberian exile. In June 1861 Bakunin escaped Siberia, and travelled through Japan and North America to London.

In 1868 Bakunin founded International Alliance of Socialist Democracy. In 1872 he and his followers were expulsed from International.

Bakunin died in 1 July 1876 in Bern, Switzerland.