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Difference between revisions of "Hydrocarbons"

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m (Linear saturated hydrocarbons: Added other names for linear saturated hydrocarbons.)
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An '''alkane''' is an organic molecule composed of only carbon and hydrogen, arranged in a straight chain with only single carbon-carbon bonds. Their empirical formula, derived from the number of carbon atoms, n, is C<sub>n</sub>H<sub>2n+2</sub>.
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'''Hydrocarbons''' are a class of [[molecule]]s that contain only [[carbon]] and [[hydrogen]] atoms.  Some of them make very good fuels.  Gasoline contains a mixture of hydrocarbons. Unsaturated hydrocarbons, which contain one or more double bonds, are useful chemicals for many reactions.
  
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== Linear saturated hydrocarbons ==
 +
The simplest hydrocarbons are linear molecules in which each carbon atoms is bonded to two other carbons atoms, in a linear fashion, except for the carbon atoms at the ends, which are only bonded to one other carbon atom.  Saturated hydrocarbon names generally end with the suffix "ane" which distinguishes them from unsaturated hydrocarbons, which end with the suffix "ene".
  
Names for the first four alkanes are historic, while the names for those with six or more carbons are derived from the Greek prefix for the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.  
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Linear saturated hydrocarbons are also called ''paraffins'' or ''alkanes''.
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
 
|-
+
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" bordercolor="#CCCCCC" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
! IUPAC name
+
<tr><th>Hydrocarbon name</th><th>Chemical Formula</th>
! Carbons
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</tr>
! Column 3 Header
+
<tr><td>[[Methane]]</td><td>CH<sub>4</sub></td>
|-
+
</tr>
| Methane
+
<tr><td>[[Ethane]]</td><td>CH<sub>3</sub>-CH<sub>3</sub></td>
| 1
+
</tr>
| CH<sub>4</sub>
+
<tr><td>[[Propane]]</td><td>CH<sub>3</sub>-CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub>3</sub></td>
|-
+
</tr>
| Ethane
+
<tr><td>[[Butane]]</td><td>CH<sub>3</sub>-CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub>3</sub></td>
| 2
+
</tr>
| CH<sub>3</sub>CH<sub>3</sub>
+
<tr><td>[[Pentane]]</td><td>CH<sub>3</sub>-(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>3</sub>-CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub>3</sub></td>
|-
+
</tr>
| Propane
+
<tr><td>[[Hextane]]</td><td>CH<sub>3</sub>-(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>4</sub>-CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub>3</sub></td>
| 3
+
</tr>
| CH<sub>3</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>3</sub>
+
<tr><td>[[Heptane]]</td><td>CH<sub>3</sub>-(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>5</sub>-CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub>3</sub></td>
|-
+
</tr>
| Butane
+
<tr><td>[[Octane]]</td><td>CH<sub>3</sub>-(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>6</sub>-CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub>3</sub></td>
| 4
+
</tr>
| CH<sub>3</sub>(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>3</sub>
+
<tr><td>[[Nonane]]</td><td>CH<sub>3</sub>-(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>7</sub>-CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub>3</sub></td>
|-
+
</tr>
| Pentane
+
<tr><td>[[Decane]]</td><td>CH<sub>3</sub>-(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>8</sub>-CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub>3</sub></td>
| 5
+
</tr>
| CH<sub>3</sub>(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>3</sub>CH<sub>3</sub>
+
<tr><td>[[Undecane]]</td><td>CH<sub>3</sub>-(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>9</sub>-CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub>3</sub></td>
|-
+
</tr>
| Hexane
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<tr><td>[[Dodecane]]</td><td>CH<sub>3</sub>-(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>10</sub>-CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub>3</sub></td>
| 6
+
</tr>
| CH<sub>3</sub>(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>4</sub>CH<sub>3</sub>
+
</table>
|-
+
 
| Heptane
+
== Linear unsaturated hydrocarbons ==
| 7
+
Unsaturated hydrocarbons are useful precursor molecules for many reactions.  Because they contain one or more double bonds, a large variety of chemical transformations are possible.  Unsaturated hydrocarbons generally end with the "ene" suffix, although common names are sometimes used instead of the IUPAC designation.  In addition, a numerical prefix is used to indicate the position of the double bond(s).
| CH<sub>3</sub>(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>5</sub>CH<sub>3</sub>
+
 
|-
+
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" bordercolor="#CCCCCC" bgcolor="#FFFFFF">
| Octane
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<tr><th>Hydrocarbon name</th><th>Chemical Formula</th>
| 8
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</tr>
| CH<sub>3</sub>(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>6</sub>CH<sub>3</sub>
+
 
|-
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<tr><td>[[Ethene]]</td><td>CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub>2</sub></td>
| Nonane
+
</tr>
| 9
+
<tr><td>[[Propene]]</td><td>CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub></sub>-CH<sub>3</sub></td>
| CH<sub>3</sub>(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>7</sub>CH<sub>3</sub>
+
</tr>
|-
+
<tr><td>[[1-Butene]]</td><td>CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub></sub>-CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub>3</sub></td>
| Decane
+
</tr>
| 10
+
<tr><td>[[2-Butene]]</td><td>CH<sub>3</sub>-CH<sub></sub>-CH<sub></sub>-CH<sub>3</sub></td>
| CH<sub>3</sub>(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>8</sub>CH<sub>3</sub>
+
</tr>
|-
+
<tr><td>[[1-Pentane]]</td><td>CH<sub>2</sub>-CH-(CH<sub></sub>)<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub>2</sub>-CH<sub>3</sub></td>
| Undecane
+
</tr>
| 11
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</table>
| CH<sub>3</sub>(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>9</sub>CH<sub>3</sub>
+
 
|-
+
 
| Dodecane
+
== cyclic saturated hydrocarbons ==
| 12
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| CH<sub>3</sub>(CH<sub>2</sub>)<sub>10</sub>CH<sub>3</sub>
+
== cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons ==
|}
+
 
 +
== aromatic hydrocarbons ==

Revision as of 15:27, 22 March 2009

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Hydrocarbons are a class of molecules that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms. Some of them make very good fuels. Gasoline contains a mixture of hydrocarbons. Unsaturated hydrocarbons, which contain one or more double bonds, are useful chemicals for many reactions.

Linear saturated hydrocarbons

The simplest hydrocarbons are linear molecules in which each carbon atoms is bonded to two other carbons atoms, in a linear fashion, except for the carbon atoms at the ends, which are only bonded to one other carbon atom. Saturated hydrocarbon names generally end with the suffix "ane" which distinguishes them from unsaturated hydrocarbons, which end with the suffix "ene".

Linear saturated hydrocarbons are also called paraffins or alkanes.


Hydrocarbon nameChemical Formula
MethaneCH4
EthaneCH3-CH3
PropaneCH3-CH2-CH3
ButaneCH3-CH2-CH2-CH3
PentaneCH3-(CH2)3-CH2-CH3
HextaneCH3-(CH2)4-CH2-CH3
HeptaneCH3-(CH2)5-CH2-CH3
OctaneCH3-(CH2)6-CH2-CH3
NonaneCH3-(CH2)7-CH2-CH3
DecaneCH3-(CH2)8-CH2-CH3
UndecaneCH3-(CH2)9-CH2-CH3
DodecaneCH3-(CH2)10-CH2-CH3

Linear unsaturated hydrocarbons

Unsaturated hydrocarbons are useful precursor molecules for many reactions. Because they contain one or more double bonds, a large variety of chemical transformations are possible. Unsaturated hydrocarbons generally end with the "ene" suffix, although common names are sometimes used instead of the IUPAC designation. In addition, a numerical prefix is used to indicate the position of the double bond(s).

Hydrocarbon nameChemical Formula
EtheneCH2-CH2
PropeneCH2-CH-CH3
1-ButeneCH2-CH-CH2-CH3
2-ButeneCH3-CH-CH-CH3
1-PentaneCH2-CH-(CH)2-CH2-CH3


cyclic saturated hydrocarbons

cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons

aromatic hydrocarbons