Difference between revisions of "Arcuate nucleus"

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The '''arcuate nucleus''' is a small part of the hypothalamus that plays an extremely important role in the regulation of hormone secretion from the pituitary gland, and in the regulation of appetite and body weight.
 
The '''arcuate nucleus''' is a small part of the hypothalamus that plays an extremely important role in the regulation of hormone secretion from the pituitary gland, and in the regulation of appetite and body weight.
  
The arcuate nucleus is located in the mediobasal [[hypothalamus]] at the base of the brain, on either side of the [[third ventricle]] and just above the [[median eminence]]. It includes several important populations of neurons, including:
+
The arcuate nucleus is located in the mediobasal [[hypothalamus]] at the base of the brain, it lies on either side of the [[third ventricle]] and just above the [[median eminence]]. It includes several important populations of neurons, including:
  
 
* [[Neuroendocrinology |Neuroendocrine neurons]] with nerve endings in the median eminence, which release [[dopamine]] into the hypophysial portal blood to regulate the secretion of the hormone [[prolactin]], which in turn controls the production of milk ([[lactogenesis]]). These are sometimes called the "tuberoinfundibular dopamine" (TIDA) neurons. In lactating females, TIDA neurons are inhibited by the stimulus of suckling. Dopamine released from their nerve endings at the median eminence is transported to the [[anterior pituitary gland]], where it inhibits prolactin secretion, so, when the TIDA neurons are inhibited, prolactin secretion is increased. Dopamine neurons of the arcuate also inhibit the release of [[gonadotropin-releasing hormone]], explaining in part why lactating (or otherwise [[hyperprolactinemia|hyperprolactinemic]]) women experience oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea (infrequency or absence of menses).<ref>Voogt JL ''et al'' (2001) Regulation of prolactin secretion during pregnancy and lactation. ''Prog Brain Res'' '''133''':173-85 PMID 11589129</ref>
 
* [[Neuroendocrinology |Neuroendocrine neurons]] with nerve endings in the median eminence, which release [[dopamine]] into the hypophysial portal blood to regulate the secretion of the hormone [[prolactin]], which in turn controls the production of milk ([[lactogenesis]]). These are sometimes called the "tuberoinfundibular dopamine" (TIDA) neurons. In lactating females, TIDA neurons are inhibited by the stimulus of suckling. Dopamine released from their nerve endings at the median eminence is transported to the [[anterior pituitary gland]], where it inhibits prolactin secretion, so, when the TIDA neurons are inhibited, prolactin secretion is increased. Dopamine neurons of the arcuate also inhibit the release of [[gonadotropin-releasing hormone]], explaining in part why lactating (or otherwise [[hyperprolactinemia|hyperprolactinemic]]) women experience oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea (infrequency or absence of menses).<ref>Voogt JL ''et al'' (2001) Regulation of prolactin secretion during pregnancy and lactation. ''Prog Brain Res'' '''133''':173-85 PMID 11589129</ref>
  
* Neuroendocrine neurons, mainly in the ventrolateral part of the nucleus, that make [[growth hormone-releasing hormone]] (GHRH). Like the TIDA neurons, these neurons have nerve endings in the median eminence. GHRH released into the hypophysial portal blood is transported to the anterior pituitary gland, where it stimulates  the secretion of [[growth hormone]]. <ref>Bluet-Pajot MT ''et al'' (1998) Hypothalamic and hypophyseal regulation of growth hormone secretion. ''Cell Mol Neurobiol'' '''18''':101-23 PMID 9524732</ref>.[[Image:LeptinactiononPOMCneurones.jpg|left|thumb|300px|]]
+
* Neuroendocrine neurons, mainly in the ventrolateral part of the nucleus, that make [[growth hormone-releasing hormone]] (GHRH). Like the TIDA neurons, these neurons have nerve endings in the median eminence. GHRH released into the hypophysial portal blood is transported to the anterior pituitary gland, where it stimulates  the secretion of [[growth hormone]]. <ref>Bluet-Pajot MT ''et al'' (1998) Hypothalamic and hypophyseal regulation of growth hormone secretion. ''Cell Mol Neurobiol'' 18:101-23 PMID 9524732</ref>.[[Image:LeptinactiononPOMCneurones.jpg|left|thumb|300px|]]
* Centrally-projecting neurons that contain [[neuropeptide Y]] (NPY), [[agouti-related protein]] (AGRP), and the inhibitory neurotransmitter [[GABA]]. These neurons, in the most ventromedial part of the nucleus, project strongly to the [[lateral hypothalamus]] and to the [[paraventricular nucleus]] of the hypothalamus, and are important in the regulation of [[appetite]]. The expression of NPY and AgRP is strongly increased after a period of fasting, and when activated, these neurons can produce ravenous eating when food is available. These neurons are regulated by circulating concentrations of [[leptin]] and [[ghrelin]]. Selectively targeted destruction of these neurons leads to severe loss of appetite in experimental animals <ref>Sawchenko PE (1998) Toward a new neurobiology of energy balance, appetite, and obesity: the anatomists weigh in. ''J Comp Neurol'' '''402''':435-41 PMID 9862319</ref><ref>Bouret SG, Simerly RB (2006) Developmental programming of hypothalamic feeding circuits.''Clin Genet'' '''70''':295-301 PMID 16965320</ref><ref>
+
* Centrally-projecting neurons that contain [[neuropeptide Y]] (NPY), [[agouti-related protein]] (AGRP), and the inhibitory neurotransmitter [[GABA]]. These neurons, in the most ventromedial part of the nucleus, project strongly to the [[lateral hypothalamus]] and to the [[paraventricular nucleus]] of the hypothalamus, and are important in the regulation of [[appetite]]. The expression of NPY and AgRP is strongly increased after a period of fasting, and when activated, these neurons can produce ravenous eating when food is available. These neurons are regulated by circulating concentrations of [[leptin]] (a hormone secreted from fat cells ([[adipose tissue]]) and [[ghrelin]] (a hormone secretd from the stomach when it is empty). Destruction of these neurons leads to severe loss of appetite in experimental animals <ref>Sawchenko PE (1998) Toward a new neurobiology of energy balance, appetite, and obesity: the anatomists weigh in. ''J Comp Neurol'' 402:435-41 PMID 9862319</ref><ref>Bouret SG, Simerly RB (2006) Developmental programming of hypothalamic feeding circuits. ''Clin Genet'' 70:295-301 PMID 16965320</ref><ref>
*van den Top M, Spanswick D (2006)  Integration of metabolic stimuli in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. ''Prog Brain Res'' '''153''':141-54 PMID 16876573</ref>  
+
van den Top M, Spanswick D (2006)  Integration of metabolic stimuli in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. ''Prog Brain Res'' 153:141-54 PMID 16876573</ref>  
  
* Centrally-projecting neurons that contain [[peptide]] products of [[pro-opiomelanocortin]] (POMC), and cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulating transcript (CART). These neurons have widespread projections to many brain areas, including to all nuclei in the hypothalamus. These cells are also important in the regulation of [[appetite]], and, when activated, they inhibit feeding. These neurons are also regulated by circulating concentrations of [[leptin]] and [[ghrelin]], and they are directly innervated by the NPY neurons. POMC neurons that project to the medial preoptic nucleus are also involved in the regulation of [[sexual behavior]] in both males and females. <ref>Cone RD, ''et al'' (2001) The arcuate nucleus as a conduit for diverse signals relevant to energy homeostasis. ''Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord'' '''25''' Suppl 5:S63-7 PMID 11840218</ref><ref>Cone RD (2005) Anatomy and regulation of the central melanocortin system. ''Nat Neurosci'' '''8''':571-8 PMID 15856065</ref>  
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* Centrally-projecting neurons that contain [[peptide]] products of [[pro-opiomelanocortin]] (POMC), and another appetite-inhibiting peptide, cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulating transcript (CART). These neurons project to many brain areas, including to all parts of the hypothalamus. They are also very important in the regulation of [[appetite]], and, when activated, they inhibit feeding. These neurons are also regulated by circulating concentrations of [[leptin]] and [[ghrelin]], and they are directly innervated by the NPY neurons. POMC neurons that project to the medial preoptic nucleus are also involved in the regulation of [[sexual behavior]] in both males and females. <ref>Cone RD ''et al'' (2001) The arcuate nucleus as a conduit for diverse signals relevant to energy homeostasis. ''Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord'' 25 Suppl 5:S63-7 PMID 11840218</ref><ref>Cone RD (2005) Anatomy and regulation of the central melanocortin system. ''Nat Neurosci'' 8:571-8 PMID 15856065</ref>  
  
 
* Centrally-projecting neurons that make somatostatin; the neurosecretory somatostatin neurons that regulate growth hormone secretion are a different population, located in the periventricular nucleus.
 
* Centrally-projecting neurons that make somatostatin; the neurosecretory somatostatin neurons that regulate growth hormone secretion are a different population, located in the periventricular nucleus.
  
* A small population of neurons that synthesise [[ghrelin]]. The role of this population is not known; many neurons in the arcuate nucleus express receptors for ghrelin, but these are thought to respond mainly to blood-borne ghrelin.<ref>Elmquist JK, ''et al'' 2005 Identifying hypothalamic pathways controlling food intake, body weight, and glucose homeostasis. ''J Comp Neurol''  '''493''':63-71 PMID 16254991</ref>  
+
* A small population of neurons that make the potent appetite-stimulating peptide [[ghrelin]]. The role of this population is not known; many neurons in the arcuate nucleus have receptors for ghrelin, but these are thought to respond mainly to blood-borne ghrelin, secreted by the empty stomach.<ref>Elmquist JK, ''et al'' 2005 Identifying hypothalamic pathways controlling food intake, body weight, and glucose homeostasis. ''J Comp Neurol''  493:63-71 PMID 16254991</ref>  
  
 
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* Neurons that synthesise [[kisspeptin]], a peptide that is a major regulator of the secretion of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH).
* Neurons that synthesise [[kisspeptin]], thought to be major regulators of the secretion of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH).
+
  
 
The arcuate nucleus also contains a population of specialized [[astrocytes]], called [[tanycytes]].
 
The arcuate nucleus also contains a population of specialized [[astrocytes]], called [[tanycytes]].

Revision as of 09:11, 1 May 2009

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The arcuate nucleus is a small part of the hypothalamus that plays an extremely important role in the regulation of hormone secretion from the pituitary gland, and in the regulation of appetite and body weight.

The arcuate nucleus is located in the mediobasal hypothalamus at the base of the brain, it lies on either side of the third ventricle and just above the median eminence. It includes several important populations of neurons, including:

  • Neuroendocrine neurons with nerve endings in the median eminence, which release dopamine into the hypophysial portal blood to regulate the secretion of the hormone prolactin, which in turn controls the production of milk (lactogenesis). These are sometimes called the "tuberoinfundibular dopamine" (TIDA) neurons. In lactating females, TIDA neurons are inhibited by the stimulus of suckling. Dopamine released from their nerve endings at the median eminence is transported to the anterior pituitary gland, where it inhibits prolactin secretion, so, when the TIDA neurons are inhibited, prolactin secretion is increased. Dopamine neurons of the arcuate also inhibit the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, explaining in part why lactating (or otherwise hyperprolactinemic) women experience oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea (infrequency or absence of menses).[1]
  • Neuroendocrine neurons, mainly in the ventrolateral part of the nucleus, that make growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). Like the TIDA neurons, these neurons have nerve endings in the median eminence. GHRH released into the hypophysial portal blood is transported to the anterior pituitary gland, where it stimulates the secretion of growth hormone. [2].
    LeptinactiononPOMCneurones.jpg
  • Centrally-projecting neurons that contain neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AGRP), and the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. These neurons, in the most ventromedial part of the nucleus, project strongly to the lateral hypothalamus and to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and are important in the regulation of appetite. The expression of NPY and AgRP is strongly increased after a period of fasting, and when activated, these neurons can produce ravenous eating when food is available. These neurons are regulated by circulating concentrations of leptin (a hormone secreted from fat cells (adipose tissue) and ghrelin (a hormone secretd from the stomach when it is empty). Destruction of these neurons leads to severe loss of appetite in experimental animals [3][4][5]
  • Centrally-projecting neurons that contain peptide products of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), and another appetite-inhibiting peptide, cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulating transcript (CART). These neurons project to many brain areas, including to all parts of the hypothalamus. They are also very important in the regulation of appetite, and, when activated, they inhibit feeding. These neurons are also regulated by circulating concentrations of leptin and ghrelin, and they are directly innervated by the NPY neurons. POMC neurons that project to the medial preoptic nucleus are also involved in the regulation of sexual behavior in both males and females. [6][7]
  • Centrally-projecting neurons that make somatostatin; the neurosecretory somatostatin neurons that regulate growth hormone secretion are a different population, located in the periventricular nucleus.
  • A small population of neurons that make the potent appetite-stimulating peptide ghrelin. The role of this population is not known; many neurons in the arcuate nucleus have receptors for ghrelin, but these are thought to respond mainly to blood-borne ghrelin, secreted by the empty stomach.[8]
  • Neurons that synthesise kisspeptin, a peptide that is a major regulator of the secretion of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH).

The arcuate nucleus also contains a population of specialized astrocytes, called tanycytes.

References

  1. Voogt JL et al (2001) Regulation of prolactin secretion during pregnancy and lactation. Prog Brain Res 133:173-85 PMID 11589129
  2. Bluet-Pajot MT et al (1998) Hypothalamic and hypophyseal regulation of growth hormone secretion. Cell Mol Neurobiol 18:101-23 PMID 9524732
  3. Sawchenko PE (1998) Toward a new neurobiology of energy balance, appetite, and obesity: the anatomists weigh in. J Comp Neurol 402:435-41 PMID 9862319
  4. Bouret SG, Simerly RB (2006) Developmental programming of hypothalamic feeding circuits. Clin Genet 70:295-301 PMID 16965320
  5. van den Top M, Spanswick D (2006) Integration of metabolic stimuli in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Prog Brain Res 153:141-54 PMID 16876573
  6. Cone RD et al (2001) The arcuate nucleus as a conduit for diverse signals relevant to energy homeostasis. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25 Suppl 5:S63-7 PMID 11840218
  7. Cone RD (2005) Anatomy and regulation of the central melanocortin system. Nat Neurosci 8:571-8 PMID 15856065
  8. Elmquist JK, et al 2005 Identifying hypothalamic pathways controlling food intake, body weight, and glucose homeostasis. J Comp Neurol 493:63-71 PMID 16254991