# Boltzmann constant

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The Boltzmann constant k (also kB) is the ratio of the molar gas constant R to Avogadro's constant NA. It can be thought of as the gas constant for a single molecule (or even for an arbitrary particle in a colloidal solution) rather than for a mole[1].

The Boltzmann constant is illustrated here in the equation for the translational kinetic energy of a simple particle in thermal equilibrium with its surroundings:[2]

${\displaystyle KE_{\mathrm {avg} }=\left({\frac {3}{2}}\right)kT}$

Where KEavg is the average kinetic energy of the particle, k is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature in kelvin.