Vipera bulgardaghica

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Vipera bulgardaghica
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Viperidae
Subfamily: Viperinae
Genus: Vipera
Species: V. bulgardaghica
Binomial name
Vipera bulgardaghica
Nilson & Andrén, 1985
  • Vipera bornmuelleri - Werner, 1898
  • Vipera lebetina bornmuelleri - Werner, 1902
  • Vipera lebetina xanthina - Schwarz, 1936
  • Vipera xanthina - Mertens, 1967
  • Vipera c.f. xanthina - Joger, 1984
  • Vipera bulgardaghica - Nilson & Andrén, 1985[1]

Common names: Bulgardagh viper.[2]  
Vipera bulgardaghica is a venomous viper species endemic in the mountains of southern Turkey.[2] No subspecies are currently recognized.[3]


Grows to a maximum length of about 78 cm.[2]

Geographic range

Found in the Bulgar Dagh (Bolkar Dagi) mountains of Nigde Province, south central Anatolia, Turkey. The type locality given is "Cilician Taurus (Kar Boghaz, Bulgar Dagh, 2500 m) province Nigde (= Karbogaz, Bolkar dagi UlukiПla), south central Anatolia, Turkey.[1]

Conservation status

This species is classified as Critically Endangered (CR) according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species with the following criteria: B1+2e, C2a (v2.3, 1994).[4] This indicates that the extent of its occurrence is estimated to be less than 100 km² or the area of its occupancy is estimated to be less than 10 km². Estimates also indicate that the populations are severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations, and that a continuing decline is inferred, observed or projected, in the number of mature individuals. In addition, the total population is estimated to number less than 250 mature individuals with no subpopulation containing more than 50 such specimens. Year assessed: 1996.[5]

It is also listed as a protected species (Appendix III) under the Berne Convention.[6]


Considered by Golay et al. (1993) to be a subspecies of V. xanthina.[1]

See also

Cited references

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Mallow D, Ludwig D, Nilson G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida. 359 pp. ISBN 0-89464-877-2.
  3. Vipera bulgardaghica (TSN 634990) at Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Accessed 27 June 2007.
  4. Vipera bulgardaghica at IUCN Red List. Accessed 6 October 2006.
  5. 1994 Categories & Criteria (version 2.3)IUCN Red List. Accessed 6 October 2006.
  6. Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, Appendix III at Council of Europe. Accessed 9 October 2006.

Other references

  • Golay P, Smith HM, Broadley DG, Dixon JR, McCarthy. Golray P, Schatti J-C, Toriba M. 1993. Endoglyphs and Other Major Venomous Snakes of the World: A Checklist. New York: Springer-Verlag. 393 pp.

External links