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Tribalism, in Benjamin Barber's book Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World, refers to militant ethnic groups eager to protect themselves from "the other", be that another tribe, or modernization, or Western popular culture.[1] In a broader anthropological context, it has been used euphemistically for "primitive." [2]

More generally, it is a group identity that could be held even within a modern society. It does not require living in a tribal social structure.


  1. Benjamin Barber (1996), Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World, Ballantine, ISBN 034538304, pp. 8-12
  2. Nigel Rapport, Joanna Overing (2000), Social and cultural anthropology: the key concepts, Routledge, ISBN 9780415181563, p. 364