# Thomas L. Saaty/Works

From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium

Dr. Saaty's books have been widely published and reprinted; some of the early ones are out of print or available in updated versions. He has over 300 published papers. This section provides a complete guide to his books and most important papers.

## Contents

## Books

### Analytic Hierarchy Process (A__H__P)

**The Analytic Hierarchy Process: Planning, Priority Setting, Resource Allocation**, ISBN 0-07-054371-2, Thomas L. Saaty, 281 pp., 1980, McGraw-Hill International Book Company, New York. Reprinted in paperback under the title**Multicriteria Decision Making – The Analytic Hierarchy Process: Planning, Priority Setting, Resource Allocation**, as Vol. I of the Analytic Hierarchy Process Series with a 192 page Addenda of selected papers including the Axiomatic Foundation of the Analytic Hierarchy Process, ISBN 0-9620317-2-0, RWS Publications, Pittsburgh, PA, 461 pp.,1996. This book is now out of print. It has been replaced by the book**The Fundamentals of Decision Making, Vol. VI**of the Analytic Hierarchy Process Series.

*The original theoretical and technical book containing a rigorous treatment of the Analytic Hierarchy Process.*

**Decision Making for Leaders: The Analytical Hierarchy Process for Decisions in a Complex World**, ISBN 534-97959-9, Thomas L. Saaty, 291 pp., 1982, Lifetime Learning Publications, Wadsworth, Inc., Belmont, California. Reprinted in paperback, ISBN 0-9620317-0-4, RWS Publications, Pittsburgh, PA, 1988. Reprinted in paperback as Vol. II in the Analytic Hierarchy Process Series, ISBN 0-9620317-8-X, 1996. Reprinted in paperback under the original title in 2008, ISBN 0-9620317-8-X.

*A practical book for those who must set priorities and make decisions. The background required is a certain level of expertise of the user in their field; this book does not require a special mathematical background and is written at the level of college level business classes.*

**The Logic of Priorities: Applications in Business, Energy, Health, and Transportation**, ISBN 0-89838-071-5 (Hardcover) and ISBN 0-89838-078-2 (Paperback), Thomas L. Saaty and Luis G. Vargas, 299 pages, 1982, The International Series in Management Science/Operations Research, Kluwer-Nijhoff Publishing, Boston. Reprinted in 1991 in paperback as Vol. VII of the Analytic Hierarchy Process Series by RWS Publications, Pittsburgh, PA.

*Wide-ranging applications of the AHP from transportation planning in the Sudan to prioritizing technologies in research to conflict resolution to resource allocation and analyzing competitive behavior.*

**Analytical Planning: The Organization of Systems**, ISBN 0-08-032599-8, Thomas L. Saaty and Kevin P. Kearns, 208 pp., 1985, International Series in Modern Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Vol. 7, Pergamon Press, Oxford.

*How the AHP approach to decision making relates to the philosophy of systems including complexity, systems, hierarchies and prioritization. The last half of the book presents applications of the AHP to planning and systems.*

**Prediction, Projection and Forecasting: Applications of the Analytic Hierarchy Process in Economics, Finance, Politics, Games and Sports**, ISBN 0-7923-9104-7, Thomas L. Saaty and Luis G. Vargas, 251 pp., 1991, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.

*More examples of predictions such as in the stock market, in modeling behavior in competition (chess), presidential elections and in economic forecasting such as predicting foreign exchange rates or predicting the macroeconomic effect of monetary policies.*

**The Hierarchon: A Dictionary of Hierarchies**, ISBN 0-9620317-5-5, Thomas L. Saaty and Ernest H. Forman, spiral-bound paperback, 426 pp., 1992, Vol. V of the Analytic Hierarchy Process Series, RWS Publications, Pittsburgh, PA.

*A dictionary of hierarchies with each entry being comprised of an AHP model and a description of it; the models are grouped in categories: educational, government/public policy, government public/strategy, health military, non-profit, personal, planning, political, and so on.*

**Fundamentals of Decision Making and Priority Theory with the Analytic Hierarchy Process**, paperback, ISBN 0-9620317-6-3, First Printing, 1994, First Printing Second Edition 2000, Second Printing Second Edition 2007, Vol. VI of the Analytic Hierarchy Process Series, RWS Publications, Pittsburgh, PA.

*This book is about the fundamental mathematical concepts of the AHP. It replaces the original 1980 book on the subject. The theory had grown considerably since 1980 and this book brings the reader up to date. It contains applications as well.*

**Decision Making in Economic, Social and Technological Environments**, ISBN 0-9620317-7-1, Thomas L. Saaty and Luis G. Vargas, paperback, 330 pp., 1994, Vol. VII of the Analytic Hierarchy Process Series, RWS Publications, Pittsburgh, PA. This book is now out of print.

*A collection of selected applications of the AHP on economics, social and political sciences, and technological design. This volume, along with the other volumes on the AHP in decision making on planning, conflict resolution and forecasting, rounds out the diversity of AHP application areas.*

**Vol. III and IV of the Analytic Hierarchy Process Series**, RWS Publications, Pittsburgh, PA, paperback, 507 pp., 1996, two earlier hardback books reprinted and bound together in a single volume in paperback:**Analytical Planning: The Organization of Systems**, ISBN 0-9620317-4-7, and**The Logic of Priorities: Applications in Business, Energy, Health, and Transportation**, ISBN 0-9620317-3-9, A special number, ISBN 1-888603-07-0, was assigned to the double book.

*See the descriptions of these two books above.*

**Models, Methods, Concepts & Applications of the Analytic Hierarchy Process**, ISBN 0-7923-7267-0, Thomas L. Saaty and Luis G. Vargas, 333 pp., 2001, Kluwer’s International Series of Operations Research and Management Science, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.

*More about the mathematical underpinnings of the AHP along with its Seven Pillars (or principles) of application; there are 21 novel applications described in detail in separate chapters.*

**Group Decision Making: Drawing Out and Reconciling Differences**, ISBN 1-888603-08-9. Thomas L. Saaty and Kirti Peniwati, paperback 385 pp., 2007, RWS Publications, Pittsburgh, PA.

*How to move from individual to group decision making using a structured approach based on the AHP/ANP. Interdependence and the need for communication and changing and intangible factors have become the defining characteristics of our world and a structured decision approach that addresses these needs has become indispensable.*

### Analytic Network Process (A__N__P)

**Decision Making with Dependence and Feedback: The Analytic Network Process**, ISBN 0-9620317-9-8, Thomas L. Saaty, hardback, 370 pp., 1996, RWS Publications, Pittsburgh, PA. This book was replaced by the extensively revised second edition in paperback, (the ISBN number remained the same), 376 pp., 2001. These books are now out of print and have been replaced by the 2005 book on the ANP that follows.

*The first book on the theory and practice of the Analytic Network Process (ANP), a generalization of the AHP to decisions with dependence and feedback. It moves from how to structure hierarchies to how to structure networks and complex networks with control criteria with many examples of each.*

**Theory and Applications of the Analytic Network Process: Decision Making with Benefits, Opportunities, Costs and Risks**, ISBN 1-888603-06-2, Thomas L. Saaty, paperback 352 pp., 2005, RWS Publications, Pittsburgh, PA.

*Progresses from single networks to multiple networks with control criteria nodes for benefits, opportunities, costs and risks subnets. There are many applications. The issue of validation is examined with examples for single network models and complex models. Dynamic decisions and automatic decision making with neural firing and response are introduced.*

**The Encyclicon, A Dictionary of Decisions with Dependence and Feedback based on the Analytic Network Process**, ISBN 1-888603-05-4, Thomas L. Saaty and Müjgan S. Özdemir, paperback 292 pp., 2005, RWS Publications, Pittsburgh, PA.

*A collection of ANP models ranging from single networks, such as market share validation examples, to complex networks. Each model is described in several pages with a summary, the benefits, opportunities, costs and risks weight development, synthesis of the results and drawings of the sub-networks. They are arranged by topic: business and trade, crime and terrorism, energy, government, health and so on.*

**The Encyclicon, Volume 2: A Dictionary of Complex Decisions using the Analytic Network Process**, ISBN 1-888603-09-7. Thomas L. Saaty and Brady Cillo, paperback 356 pp., 2008 (forthcoming), RWS Publications, Pittsburgh, PA.

*A second volume of new applications of the ANP to decisions with benefits, opportunities, costs and risks. Eighty five applications have been described and categorized into business: strategy, operations and location selection; government: national, state and local, social political, international: relations and affairs, personal: education, career and investment; and sports. It has an appendix about the theory behind the AHP and ANP.*

**Decision Making with the Analytic Network Process: Economic, Political, Social and Technological Applications with Benefits, Opportunities, Costs and Risks**, ISBN 0-387-33859-4. Thomas L. Saaty and Luis G. Vargas, hardback 278 pp., 2006, International Series in Operations Research & Management Science, Springer, New York.

*Applying network structures with dependence and feedback in decisions. The book is a collection of selected applications of the ANP to economic, social and political sciences and technological design.*

### Neural Network Process (NNP)

**The Brain: Unraveling the Mystery of How it Works, The Neural Network Process**, ISBN 1-888603-02-X , Thomas L. Saaty, 481 pp., 1999, RWS Publications, Pittsburgh, PA.

*This work confirms what many contemporary thinkers have claimed: that all human actions, sensations, thoughts and even emotions are derived from the synthesis of neural firings in the brain. How this happens and the precise nature of their interaction, feedback, and synthesis, however, has not been fully described – until now.*

### Operations Research

**Mathematical Methods of Operations Research**, Thomas L. Saaty, no ISBN number, (translated to Japanese and Russian), McGraw-Hill, New York.1959; extended edition reprinted by Dover in paperback, ISBN 0-486-65703-5, 1988.

**Elements of Queueing Theory with Applications**, no ISBN number, Thomas L. Saaty, (translated to Russian, Spanish and German), McGraw-Hill, 1961.

### Mathematics

**Nonlinear Mathematics**, Thomas L. Saaty, (with J. Bram), International Series in Pure and Applied Mathematics, no ISBN number, McGraw-Hill, 1964; reprinted by Dover in paperback, ISBN 0-486-64233-X, 1981.

**Lectures on Modern Mathematics**, Volumes I, II, III (Thomas L. Saaty, Editor), no ISBN numbers, Translated to Japanese, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1964-65.

**Finite Graphs and Networks**, no ISBN number, Thomas L. Saaty, (with R. Busacker), (translated to Japanese, Russian, German and Hungarian), McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965.

**Modern Nonlinear Equations**, no ISBN number, Thomas L. Saaty, McGraw-Hill, 1967, reprinted by Dover in paperback, ISBN 0-486-64232-1,1981.

**The Spirit and Uses of the Mathematical Sciences**, hardback no ISBN number, paperback no ISBN number, (Thomas L. Saaty, Editor, with F.J. Weyl), McGraw-Hill, 1969.

**Optimization in Integers and Related Extremal Problems**, no ISBN number, Thomas L. Saaty, (translated to Russian), McGraw-Hill, 1970.

**The Four-Color Problem; Assaults and Conquest**, ISBN 0-07-054382-8, Thomas L. Saaty, (with Paul C. Kainen), McGraw-Hill International, 1977; revised edition, ISBN 0-486-65092-8 paperback, Dover, 1986.

### Applied mathematics

**Mathematical Models of Arms Control and Disarmament**, no ISBN number, Thomas L. Saaty, (translated to Russian), John Wiley and Sons, 1968.

**Topics in Behavioral Mathematics**, no ISBN number, Thomas L. Saaty, Mathematical Association of America, Washington, D.C., 1973.

**Thinking with Models: Mathematical Models in the Physical, Biological, and Social Sciences**, hardback ISBN 0-08-026475-1, paperback ISBN 0-08-026474, Thomas L. Saaty, (with Joyce Alexander), Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1981.

### Other topics

**Compact City**, hardback ISBN 0-7167-0784-5, paperback ISBN 0-7167-0794-2, Thomas L. Saaty, (with George B. Dantzig), (translated to Japanese and Russian), W.H. Freeman and Company, 1973.

**Embracing the Future**, ISBN 0-275-93573-6, Thomas L. Saaty, (with Larry W. Boone), Praeger, New York, 1990.

**Creative Thinking, Problem Solving & Decision Making**, ISBN 1-888603-03-8, Thomas L. Saaty, RWS Publications, 4922 Ellsworth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, 2001.

## Seminal papers on the Analytic Hierarchy Process

*A Scaling Method for Priorities in Hierarchical Structures,*Thomas L. Saaty, Journal of Mathematical Psychology, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1977, pp. 234-281. The first paper published in a recognized journal that includes most of the fundamental concepts of the AHP.

*Hierarchies, Reciprocal Matrices, and Ratio Scales,*Thomas L. Saaty, Modules in Applied Mathematics, Cornell University, The Mathematical Association of America, 1976. The fundamental concepts of the AHP are being developed as Saaty participated in a workshop in the summer of 1976 at Cornell University.

*Modeling Unstructured Decision Problems: A Theory of Analytical Hierarchies,*Thomas L. Saaty, Proceedings of the First International Conference on Mathematical Modeling, University of Missouri- Rolla, Vol. 1, 1977, pp. 59-77. The new AHP theory was rolled out in a public lecture before mathematicians.

*Scenarios and Priorities in Transport Planning: Application to the Sudan,*Thomas L. Saaty, Transportation Research, Vol. 11, No. 5, 1977. The first substantial application of the AHP to ranking transportation projects in the Sudan.

*The Sudan Transport Study,*Thomas L. Saaty, Interfaces, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1977, pp. 37-57.

*Modeling Unstructured Decision Problems: Theory of Analytical Hierarchies,*Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1978, pp. 147-157. AHP is linked with decision making.

*Rationing Energy to Industries: Priorities and Input- Output Dependence,*Thomas L. Saaty, Reynaldo S. Mariano, Energy Systems and Policy, Vol. 8, 1979, pp. 85-111. The first paper on the relationship between AHP priorities and econometric input-output tables.

*Hierarchical Analysis of Behavior in Competition: Prediction in Chess,*Thomas L. Saaty, Luis G Vargas, Behavioral Sciences, May, 1980. One of the early applications of AHP that successfully predicted the winner of a chess match and the number of games played.

*Marketing Applications of the Analytic Hierarchy Process,*Thomas L. Saaty, Y. Wind, Management Science, Vol. 26, No. 7, 1980, pp. 641-658. The first published marketing application.

*High Level Decisions: A Lesson from the Iran Hostage Rescue Operation,*Thomas L. Saaty, Amos Barzilay, Luis Vargas), Decision Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 2, April, 1982, pp. 185-206. One of the first papers to prioritize political motives and demonstrate how they were prime movers of events in the real world.

*Conflict Resolution and the Falkland Islands Invasion,*Thomas L. Saaty, Interfaces: Special Issue: CPMS/TIMS Prize Papers, Vol. 13, No. 6, December, 1983, pp. 68-83. Another political application.

*Procedures for Synthesizing Ratio Judgements,*Thomas L. Saaty, Janos Aczel, Journal of Mathematical Psychology, Vol. 27, No. 1, March 1983, pp. 93-102. The seminal paper about how the geometric mean is the way to combine individual judgments to produce a group judgment, written with world-famous mathematician Janos Aczel.

*Inconsistency and Rank Preservation,*(with Luis Vargas), Journal of Mathematical Psychology, Vol. 28, No. 2, June 1984. The important concept of inconsistency and how to measure it. The issue of rank preservation is addressed in the literature.

*The Legitimacy of Rank Reversal,*Thomas L. Saaty OMEGA International Journal of Management Science, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. 513-516, 1984. More on Rank Reversal and why it is allowable and desirable in the new framework of relative measurement of the AHP.

*Comparison of Eigenvalue, Logarithmic Least Squares and Least Squares Methods in Estimating Ratios,*Thomas L. Saaty, Luis Vargas, Mathematical Modelling, Vol. 5, No. 5, 1984, pp. 309-324. An explanation of why the eigenvector is the way to compute the priority vector from the AHP pairwise comparison matrix.

*Inconsistency and Rank Preservation,*Thomas L. Saaty, Luis Vargas, Journal of Mathematical Psychology, Vol. 28, No. 2, June 1984.

*The Analytic Hierarchy Process: Decision Making in Complex Environments,*Thomas L. Saaty, in Quantitative Assessments in Arms Control, (ed. R. Avenhaus), Plenum Press, 1984. A published work about AHP and arms control. Arms control issues were the original motivation that led to developing the AHP.

*New Light on the Theorem of Perron,*Thomas L. Saaty, Homenaje Al Professor Sixto Rios, Trabajos De Estadistica Y De Investigacion Operativa, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1985, pp. 253-257. The theorem of Perron is a central idea in validating how a priority vector is calculated from a pairwise comparison matrix.

*Axiomatic Foundation of the Analytic Hierarchy Process,*Thomas L. Saaty, Management Science, D.G. Morrison Ed., Vol. 32, No. 7, July 1986. The four axioms of the AHP are laid out for the first time in a publication.

*Absolute and Relative Measurement with the AHP. The Most Livable Cities in the United States,*Thomas L. Saaty, Socio-EconomicPlanning Sciences, Vol. 20, No. 6, pp. 327-331, 1986. This article demonstrates the important idea of rating alternatives one at a time by establishing standards in terms of priority scales on each criterion.

*A Note on the AHP and Expected Value Theory,*Thomas L. Saaty, Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Vol. 20, No. 6, pp. 397-398, 1986. Expected value theory is essential to relate AHP priority outcomes to real-world data expressed in some other way.

*Exploring Optimization through Hierarchies and Ratio Scales,*Thomas L. Saaty, Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Vol. 20, No. 6, pp. 335- 360, 1986. An early publication that lays out how to optimize the allocation of resources using AHP priorities. The most widespread uses of AHP in government and industry spring from this idea of optimization.

*Forecasting Foreign Exchange Rates: An Expert Judgement Approach,*Thomas L. Saaty, A. Blair, R. Nachtmann, J. Olson, Socio- Economic Planning Sciences, Vol. 21, No. 6, pp. 363-369, 1987. The first published application of prediction in economics.

*Rank According to Perron: A New Insight,*Thomas L. Saaty, Mathematics Magazine, Vol. 60, No. 4, pp. 211- 213, October 1987. More on the vitally important theorem of Perron.

*How to Handle Dependence with the Analytic Hierarchy Process,*Thomas L. Saaty, International Journal of Mathematical Modelling, Vol. 9, No. 3-5, pp. 369-376, 1987. Dependence, which underlies the ANP, appears in print.

*A New Macroeconomic Forecasting and Policy Evaluation Method Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process,*Thomas L. Saaty, Journal of Mathematical Modelling, Vol. 9, No. 3-5, pp. 219-231, 1987. More on econometric forecasting.

*Resolution of Retributive Conflicts*, Thomas L. Saaty, in Contributions of Technology to International Conflict Resolution , Pergamon Press, 1987. The ideas that led to the book on conflict resolution begin to appear.

*Resolution of Retributive Conflicts,*Thomas L. Saaty, Edited by G.K. Rand, Operational Research, pp. 549-565, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., IFORS, 1988.

*The Conflict in South Africa,*Thomas L. Saaty, Orion, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 3-25, 1988.