From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
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- Coe, Lewis (2003-11). Telegraph: A History of Morse's Invention and Its Predecessors in the United States. McFarland & Company. ISBN 0786418087.
- Standage, Tom (2007-09-18). The Victorian Internet: The Remarkable Story of the Telegraph and the Nineteenth Century's On-line Pioneers, 1st. Walker & Company.