Second Consonant Shift
The Second or High German Consonant Shift is a sound change that took place in around AD 500 and which affected the southern or High German dialects. In these dialects initial, medial, and final West-Germanic */p, t, k/ shifted to fricatives and affricates.
The following table illustrates the effect of the Second Consonant Shift (shifts of initial, medial and final p, t, k):
|High German||Low German||English||Dutch|
Note: Initial /k/ only shifted in the extreme southern dialects (e.g. Swiss German Kchriesi ‘cherry’, cf. German Kirsche).