Sailing/Catalogs

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An informational catalog, or several catalogs, about Sailing.

Nomenclature (Terms)

abeam
in a line approximately at right angle to the ship’s length
abaft
further toward the back of the boat
aft
near, toward or at the stern
athwartships
in the direction at right angles to fore and aft
batten
narrow long pieces of wood, metal or fibreglass which help keep the aft side of a fore-and-aft sail flat. They usually fit into slots in the leech.
beat 
sailing upwind on a close-hauled point of sail.
blocks
pulleys and lines run through them
bolt rope
a rope sewn in to the luff of a sail. If on the mainsail, the bolt rope is fed in to a groove in the mast.
boom
a spar which holds the top of a rectangular sail up or (usually) pulls the bottom of a triangular sail down
boom vang
see "vang."
bow
forward part of a vessel
catamaran
a vessel with two hulls
centerboard
a board which is lowered through the center of small sailboats to reduce the amount of sideways movement of the boat
clew
1. aft bottom corner of a triangular sail
2. bottom corners of a rectangular sail
de-rig 
to remove sailing gear from the boat after sailing. See also: "rig"
deck
fall off
turn a sailing vessel further away from the wind
foot
bottom edge of a sail
fore
in the direction toward the front of the vessel
fore-and-aft
in the direction running from the bow to the stern of the vessel
halyard
line used to pull up something, such as a sail, flag or boom
head
1. top corner of a triangular sail
2. top edge of a rectangular sail
3. toilet (on a vessel)
head up
turn a sailing vessel further away from the wind
heel
sideways rotation of a boat (from upright) due to wind pressure on the sail, rigging and hull, or due to the boat turning. (Compare with roll.)
hull
main body of a vessel, on which mast(s), rudder(s) and other items are fixed
jib
triangular sail used to channel wind around another sail in order to increase its efficiency
jibe
cause the boom to change sides when the wind is coming from astern
keel
1. "backbone" of a hull along its bottom
2. on large monohulls, a keel extends down from the main part of the hull and has considerable mass (to reduce the likelihood of the vessel capsizing)
ketch
two-masted sailing vessel where the mizzen mast is slightly smaller than the main mast and the mizzen mast is forward of the rudder post
leech
1. aft edge of a triangular sail
2. vertical edges of a rectangular sail
leeward
(pronounced "looard") further away from the wind (than another object). Compare with "windward".
line
most ropes on ships and boats are called "lines." Some of the types of lines include "sheets", "halyards" and those used for mooring.
luff
1. forward edge of triangular sail
2. when a sail starts flapping because the it (or its jib) is trimmed to tightly (too close to the centre of the boat)
luff tape
mast
(approximately) vertical spar which (usually) holds up a sail or boom(s)
mizzen
most aft mast, sail or boom of a multi-masted boat, providing that mast/sail is not taller than the others.
monohull
vessel with one hull
outhaul
pitch
back-and-forth rotation of the boat from forward and backward
port
side of the vessel (or direction) which is on the left (or toward the left) when facing forward
quarter
directions approximately 45 degrees either side from directly aft
rig 
to prepare the sailboat, sails, lines, sheets, etc before sailing. See also: "de-rig"
rigging
totality of spars and lines used to hold up and control sails
roll
back-and-forth rotation of the boat from side to side
running rigging
rigging which moves, e.g. a sheet
schooner
multi-mast sailing vessel where the mast furthest aft is no shorter than any other mast.
sheet
line running from the clew or boom (if on a triangular sail) to control the position of the sail
shroud
unmoving piece of rope or line which reduces a mast's movement in the athwartship direction
spar
stiff pole of some kind, e.g. a mast, a boom, a whisker pole
spinnaker
a large (approximately) triangular sail used to catch a log of wind (usually) when the wind is abaft the beam. The spinnaker is also known as "the kite," or "the shoot."
standing rigging
rigging that does not move, e.g. a mast
starboard
the side of the vessel (or direction) which is on the right (or toward the right) when facing forward
stay
an unmoving piece of line or rope which reduces a mast's movement in the fore-and-aft direction. The forestay is forward, reduces mast movement aft. The aft stay, if it exists, reduces mast movement forward.
stern
the back of the vessel
tack
1. (n) the front corner of a triangular sail
2. (n) an indication of which side the wind is coming from and the side of the boat the boom is on, e.g. a "port tack" indicates the wind is coming from the port side and the boom is on the starboard side
3. (v) cause the boom to change sides when the wind is coming from ahead
4. (v) go for a time on one tack, then change to the other, ongoing, zig-zagging to reach a destination upwind
telltail 
lightweight yarn, audio tape or similar material attached to a sail to observe the airflow over the sail
trimaran
a vessel with three hulls
vang
a line and/or blocks which hold down a boom
yawl
a two-masted sailing vessel where the mizzen mast is considerably smaller than the main mast and the mizzen mast is aft of the rudder post
whisker pole
a spar which holds a jib or spinnaker clew out from the boat so it can catch more wind
windward
further toward the wind (than another object)
wing-in-wing
when the mainsail and the jib/spinnaker are on opposite sides of the boat. Most often occurs when the vessel has the wind directly astern.