In medicine, rifampin, also called rifampicin, is "a semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms"
It is used both treatment and chemoprophylaxis of tuberculosis. World Health Organization recommendations for leprosy use rifampin as part of multidrug therapy either with dapsone, or dapsone and clofazimine.
Among its uses is the treatment of staphylococcus aureus. For this purpose, rifampicin (10 mg/kg twice daily, maximum 900 mg twice daily), intravenously for the first week and then given orally, combined with cotrimoxazole (sulfamethoxazole 40 mg/kg/day, trimethoprim 8 mg/kg/day).
The drug is also used for the chemoprophylaxis of Neisseria meningitidis meningococcal meningitis.
The most up-to-date information about Rifampin and other drugs can be found at the following sites.
- Rifampin - FDA approved drug information (drug label) from DailyMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine).
- Rifampin - Drug information for consumers from MedlinePlus (U.S. National Library of Medicine).
- Rifampin - Detailed information from DrugBank.
- Anonymous (2015), Rifampin (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
- R Bright-Thomas, et al. (2010), "(Abstract) Effectiveness of 3 months of rifampicin and isoniazid chemoprophylaxis for the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in children", Arch Dis Child 95: 600-602, DOI:10.1136/adc.2010.182600
- Nguyen S, Pasquet A, Legout L, Beltrand E, Dubreuil L, Migaud H et al. (2009). "Efficacy and tolerance of rifampicin-linezolid compared with rifampicin-cotrimoxazole combinations in prolonged oral therapy for bone and joint infections.". Clin Microbiol Infect 15 (12): 1163-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02761.x. PMID 19438638. Research Blogging.
- Daum RS et al. (1981 Mar), "(Abstract) Rifampin chemoprophylaxis for household contacts of patients with invasive infections due to Haemophilus influenzae type b.", J Pediatr 98 (3): 485-91.