Pseudomembranous enterocolitis

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Pseudomembranous enterocolitis
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Pseudomembranous enterocolitis
MeSH D004761

In gastroenterology, pseudomembranous enterocolitis is an "acute inflammation of the intestinal mucosa that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the small intestine (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the large intestine (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and clostridium difficile colonization."[1] The disorder is an increasing matter of concern, as it is one of the more common nosocomial infections, but is also being seen in community-acquired cases.

Epidemiology

About 50% of patients with diarrhea after antibiotics that is severe enough to be admitted to the hospital have pseudomembranes on colonoscopy.[2]

Diagnosis

Clinical practice guidelines address diagnosis.[3]

Sigmoidoscopy has a sensitivity of 31% in detecting pseudomembranes as compared to colonosopy.[4]

Treatment

See also: Clostridium difficile

References

  1. Anonymous (2015), Pseudomembranous enterocolitis (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  2. Lee KS, Shin WG, Jang MK, et al (October 2006). "Who are susceptible to pseudomembranous colitis among patients with presumed antibiotic-associated diarrhea?". Dis. Colon Rectum 49 (10): 1552–8. DOI:10.1007/s10350-006-0694-z. PMID 17028914. Research Blogging.
  3. Cohen SH, Gerding DN, Johnson S, Kelly CP, Loo VG, McDonald LC et al. (2010). "Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults: 2010 update by the society for healthcare epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the infectious diseases society of America (IDSA).". Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 31 (5): 431-55. DOI:10.1086/651706. PMID 20307191. Research Blogging.
  4. Seppala, K, Hjelt, L, Supponen, P. Colonoscopy in the diagnosis of antibiotic-associated colitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 1981; 16:465. PMID 7323683