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From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
|McDonnell Mercury capsule|
The Mercury capsule
|Role:||Suborbital and orbital spaceflight|
|Height:||11.5 ft||3.51 m|
|Diameter:||6.2 ft||1.89 m|
|Volume:||60 ft3||1.7 m3|
|Launch:||4,265 lb||1,935 kg|
|Orbit:||2,986 lb||1,354 kg|
|Post Retro:||2,815 lb||1,277 kg|
|Reentry:||2,698 lb||1,224 kg|
|Landing:||2,421 lb||1,098 kg|
|Retros (solid fuel) x 3:||1,000 lbf ea||4.5 kN|
|Posigrade (solid fuel) x 3:||400 lbf ea||1.8 kN|
|RCS high (H2O2) x 6:||25 lbf ea||108 N|
|RCS low (H2O2) x 6:||12 lbf ea||49 N|
|Endurance:||34 hours||22 orbits|
|Apogee:||175 miles||282 km|
|Perigee:||100 miles||160 km|
|Retro delta v:||300 mph||483 km/h|
Project Mercury was the United States' first manned spaceflight program. It ran from 1959 through 1963 with the goal of putting a man in orbit around the Earth. Early planning and research was carried out by NACA, while the program was officially carried out by the newly created NASA. The name comes from Mercury, a Roman mythological god who is often seen as a symbol of speed. Mercury is also the name of the innermost planet of the solar system, which revolves around the sun faster than any other, hence the image of speed, although Project Mercury had no other connection to that planet.
The Mercury program cost $1.5 billion. See NASA Budget.
It was said that the Mercury spacecraft were not ridden, they were worn, because of their extremely small size - at 1.7 cubic metres in volume, the capsule was just large enough for the single crew member. Inside were 120 controls: 55 electrical switches, 30 fuses and 35 mechanical levers. The spacecraft was designed by Max Faget and NASA's Space Task Group.
During the launch phase of the mission, the Mercury spacecraft and astronaut were protected from launch vehicle failures by the Launch Escape System. The LES consisted of a solid fuel, 52,000 lbf (231 kN) thrust rocket mounted on a tower above the spacecraft. In the event of a launch abort, the LES fired for 1 second, pulling the Mercury spacecraft away from a defective launch vehicle. The spacecraft would then descend on its parachute recovery system. After booster engine cutoff (BECO), the LES was no longer needed and was separated from the spacecraft by a solid fuel, 800 lbf (3.6 kN) thrust jettison rocket that fired for 1.5 seconds.
To separate the Mercury spacecraft from the launch vehicle, the spacecraft fired three small solid-fuel, 400 lbf (1.8 kN) thrust rockets for 1 second. These rockets are called the Posigrade rockets.
The spacecraft was only equipped with attitude control thrusters - after orbit insertion and before retrofire they could not change their orbit. There were three sets of high and low powered automatic control jets and separate manual jets - one for each axis (yaw, pitch, and roll), supplied from two separate fuel tanks - one automatic and one manual. The pilot could use any one of the three thruster systems and fuel them from either of the two fuel tanks to provide spacecraft attitude control.
The Mercury spacecraft were designed to be totally controllable from the ground in the event that the space environment impaired the pilot's ability to function.
The spacecraft had three solid-fuel, 1000 lbf (4.5 kN) thrust retrorockets that fired for 10 seconds each. One was sufficient to return the spacecraft to earth if the other two failed. The firing sequence (known as ripple firing) required firing the first retro, followed by the second retro five seconds later (while the first was still firing). Five seconds after that, the third retro fired (while the second retro was still firing).
There was a small metal flap at the nose of the spacecraft called the "spoiler". If the spacecraft started to reenter nose first (another stable reentry attitude for the capsule), airflow over the "spoiler" would flip the spacecraft around to the proper, heatshield-first reentry attitude. During reentry, the astronaut would experience about 4 g-forces.
Initial designs for the spacecraft suggested the use of either beryllium heat-sink heat shields or an ablative shield. Extensive testing settled the issue - ablative shields proved to be reliable (so much so that the initial shield thickness was safely reduced, allowing a lower total spacecraft weight), easier to produce (at that time, beryllium was only produced in sufficient quantities by a single company in the US) and cheaper.
NASA ordered 20 production spacecraft, numbered 1 through 20, from McDonnell Aircraft Company, St. Louis, Missouri. Five of the twenty spacecraft, #10, 12, 15, 17, and 19, were not flown. Spacecraft #3 and #4 were destroyed during unmanned test flights. Spacecraft #11 sank and was recovered from the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean after 38 years. Some spacecraft were modified after initial production (refurbished after launch abort, modified for longer missions, etc) and received a letter designation after their number, examples 2B, 15B. Some spacecraft were modified twice; for example, spacecraft 15 became 15A and then 15B.
A number of boilerplate spacecraft (mockup/prototype/replica spacecraft, made from non-flight materials or lacking production spacecraft systems and/or hardware) were also made by NASA and McDonnell Aircraft and used in numerous tests, including launch.
The Mercury program used three boosters:
- Little Joe - 8 suborbital robotic flights, 2 carrying monkeys. Launch escape system tests.
- Redstone - 4 suborbital robotic flights, 1 carrying a chimpanzee; 2 piloted suborbital flights.
- Atlas - 4 suborbital robotic flights; 2 orbital robotic flights, 1 carrying a chimpanzee; 5 piloted orbital flights.
Little Joe was used to test the escape tower and abort procedures. Redstone was used for suborbital flights, and Atlas for orbital ones. Starting in October, 1958, Jupiter missiles were also considered as suborbital launch vehicles for the Mercury program, but were cut from the program in July, 1959 due to budget constraints. The Atlas boosters required extra strengthening in order to handle the increased weight of the Mercury capsules beyond that of the nuclear warheads they were designed to carry. Little Joe was a solid-propellant booster designed specially for the Mercury program. The Titan missile was also considered for use for later Mercury missions, however the Mercury program was terminated before these missions were flown. The Titan was used for the Gemini program which followed Mercury.
The Mercury program used a Scout booster for a single flight, Mercury-Scout 1, which launched a small satellite intended to evaluate the worldwide Mercury Tracking Network. The rocket was destroyed by the Range Safety Officer after 44 seconds of flight.
The program included 20 robotic launches. Not all of these were intended to reach space and not all were successful in completing their objectives. Four of these flights included non-human primates, starting with the fifth flight (1959) which launched a Rhesus macaque named Sam (after the Air Force's School of Aviation Medicine). The Mercury program's complete roster of non-human space-farers is given below:
|Mission||Rocket||Call Sign||Launch Date||Launch Time||Duration||Remarks|
|Mercury-Jupiter||Jupiter (missile)||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||Cancelled in July, 1959 - Proposed suborbital launch vehicle for Mercury. Not flown.|
|Little Joe 1||Little Joe||LJ-1||Aug 21, 1959||N/A||00d 00h 00 m 20s||Test of launch escape system during flight.|
|Big Joe 1||Atlas 10-D||Big Joe 1||Sep 9, 1959||N/A||00d 00h 13 m||Test of heat shield and Atlas / spacecraft interface.|
|Little Joe 6||Little Joe||LJ-6||Oct 4, 1959||N/A||00d 00h 05 m 10s||Test of capsule aerodynamics and integrity.|
|Little Joe 1A||Little Joe||LJ-1A||Nov 4, 1959||N/A||00d 00h 08 m 11s||Test of launch escape system during flight.|
|Little Joe 2||Little Joe||LJ-2||Dec 4, 1959||N/A||00d 00h 11 m 06s||Carried Sam the monkey to 85 kilometres in altitude.|
|Little Joe 1B||Little Joe||LJ-1B||Jan 21, 1960||N/A||00d 00h 08 m 35s||Carried Miss Sam the monkey to 9.3 statute miles (15 kilometres) in altitude.|
|Beach Abort||Launch escape system||Beach Abort||May 9, 1960||N/A||00d 00h 01 m 31s||Test of the Off-The-Pad abort system.|
|Mercury-Atlas 1||Atlas||MA-1||Jul 29, 1960||13:13 UTC||00d 00h 03 m 18s||First flight of Mercury spacecraft and Atlas Booster.|
|Little Joe 5||Little Joe||LJ-5||Nov 8, 1960||N/A||00d 00h 02 m 22s||First flight of a production Mercury spacecraft.|
|Mercury-Redstone 1||Redstone||MR-1||Nov 21,1960||N/A||00d 00h 00 m 02s||Launched 4 inches (100 mm). Settled back on pad due to electrical malfunction.|
|Mercury-Redstone 1A||Redstone||MR-1A||Dec 19, 1960||N/A||00d 00h 15 m 45s||First flight of Mercury spacecraft and Redstone booster.|
|Mercury-Redstone 2||Redstone||MR-2||Jan 31, 1961||16:55 UTC||00d 00h 16 m 39s||Carried Ham the Chimpanzee on suborbital flight.|
|Mercury-Atlas 2||Atlas||MA-2||Feb 21, 1961||14:10 UTC||00d 00h 17 m 56s||Test of Mercury spacecraft and Atlas Booster.|
|Little Joe 5A||Little Joe||LJ-5A||Mar 18, 1961||N/A||00d 00h 23 m 48s||Test of the launch escape system during the most severe conditions of a launch.|
|Mercury-Redstone BD||Redstone||MR-BD||Mar 24, 1961||17:30 UTC||00d 00h 8 m 23s||Redstone Booster Development - test flight.|
|Mercury-Atlas 3||Atlas||MA-3||Apr 25, 1961||16:15 UTC||00d 00h 07 m 19s||Test of Mercury spacecraft and Atlas Booster.|
|Little Joe 5B||Little Joe||AB-1||Apr 28, 1961||N/A||00d 00h 05 m 25s||Test of the launch escape system during the most severe conditions of a launch.|
|Mercury-Atlas 4||Atlas||MA-4||Sep 13, 1961||14:09 UTC||00d 01h 49 m 20s||Test of Mercury spacecraft and Atlas Booster. Completed 1 orbit.|
|Mercury-Scout 1||Scout||MS-1||Nov 1, 1961||15:32 UTC||00d 00h 00 m 44s||Test of Mercury tracking network.|
|Mercury-Atlas 5||Atlas||MA-5||Nov 29, 1961||15:08 UTC||00d 03h 20 m 59s||Carried Enos the Chimpanzee on a two orbit flight.|
The first Americans to venture into space were drawn from a group of 110 military pilots chosen for their flight test experience and because they met certain physical requirements. Seven of those 110 became astronauts in April 1959. Six of the seven flew Mercury missions (Deke Slayton was removed from flight status due to a heart condition). Beginning with Alan Shepard's Freedom 7 flight, the astronauts named their own spacecraft, and all added "7" to the name to acknowledge the teamwork of their fellow astronauts
- Malcolm Scott Carpenter, USN (1925-)
- Leroy Gordon "Gordo" Cooper, Jr., USAF (1927-2004)
- John Herschel Glenn. Jr., USMC (1921-) First American to orbit the earth.
- Virgil Ivan "Gus" Grissom, USAF (1926-1967)
- Walter Marty Schirra, Jr., USN (1923-)
- Alan Bartlett Shepard, Jr., USN (1923-1998) First American in space.
- Donald Kent "Deke" Slayton, USAF (1924-1993) Grounded in 1962 due to irregular heartbeat, reinstated in 1972 and later flew on the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project in 1975.
|Mission||Callsign||Rocket||Designation||Pilot||Launch Date||Launch Time||Duration||Remarks|
|Mercury-Redstone 3||Freedom 7||Redstone||MR-3||Shepard||May 5, 1961||14:34 UTC||00d 00h|
15 m 28s
|First American to make a suborbital flight into space.|
|Mercury-Redstone 4||Liberty Bell 7||Redstone||MR-4||Grissom||July 21, 1961||12:20 UTC||00d 00h|
15 m 37s
|Second suborbital flight. Capsule sank before recovery when hatch unexpectedly blew off.|
|Mercury-Atlas 6||Friendship 7||Atlas||MA-6||Glenn||February 20, 1962||14:47 UTC||00d 04h|
55 m 23s
|First American to orbit the Earth (for a total of 3 orbits). Capsule's retropack retained during re-entry due to concerns about heatshield.|
|Mercury-Atlas 7||Aurora 7||Atlas||MA-7||Carpenter||May 24, 1962||12:45 UTC||00d 04h|
56 m 15s
|3 orbits. Reentered off-target by 402 km. Pilot Carpenter replaced Deke Slayton.|
|Mercury-Atlas 8||Sigma 7||Atlas||MA-8||Schirra||October 3, 1962||12:15 UTC||00d 09h|
13 m 11s
|Carried out engineering tests. 6 orbits.|
|Mercury-Atlas 9||Faith 7||Atlas||MA-9||Cooper||May 15, 1963||13:04 UTC||01d 10h|
19 m 49s
|First American in space for over a day. Last American to fly into space solo and orbit (since then many American X-15 pilots and the pilots of SpaceShipOne have flown past the 100km "space" plateau and returned to earth without orbiting...). 22 orbits.|
|Mercury 10||Freedom 7-II||Atlas||MA-10||Shepard||N/A||N/A||N/A||Intended to be a 3-day mission in October, 1963. Cancelled June 13, 1963.|
Mercury flight insignias
Flight patches really that purport to be patches from various Mercury missions are available to the public. In reality, these patches were designed by private entrepreneurs long after the Mercury program ended. When genuine flight patches were created by crews in the Gemini program, this caused a public demand for Mercury flight patches, which was filled by these private entrepreneurs. The only patches the Mercury astronauts wore were the NASA logo and a name tag. Each manned Mercury spacecraft, however, was decorated with a flight insignia. These are the genuine Mercury flight insignias.
The Mercury astronauts trained, in part, at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, under Flight Surgeon William K. Douglas and Keith G. Lindell (COL, USAF). Several bridges throughout the city bear the name of the Mercury astronauts, and U.S. Route 258, a major north-south route in the cities of Hampton and Newport News is named Mercury Boulevard, honoring the Mercury program.
The names of five of the Mercury astronauts are also commemorated in the popular 1960s TV show Thunderbirds. In the series, Jeff Tracy, the founder of the fictional International Rescue organisation, is a millionaire ex-astronaut who has named his five sons -- Scott, Virgil, Alan, John and Gordon -- after the real-life Mercury astronauts.
- Chris Kraft, Flight: My Life in Mission Control. Factual, written by one of the pivotal figures in America's space programme, whose involvement ran from the early days of NACA through the formation of NASA, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, ASTP, Skylab and the early days of Shuttle operations. ISBN 0-452-28304-3
- Gene Kranz, Failure is Not an Option. Factual, from the standpoint of a chief flight controller during the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo space programs. ISBN 0-7432-0079-9
- Tom Wolfe, The Right Stuff. Sentimental, from the test pilot, and later the astronaut viewpoint, more journalistic than a literal history (Wolfe interviewed many of those involved).
- Schirra, Grissom, Glenn, Slayton, Shepherd, Carpenter, Cooper, We Seven. (ISBN B00005X54G); Simon & Schuster - 1962. Factual; a collection of articles written by the seven Mercury astronauts describing events from their points of view.
- James M. Grimwood, This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury
- James M. Grimwood, Project Mercury - A Chronology
- Mae Mills Link, Space Medicine In Project Mercury
- Results of the first US manned orbital space flight - Feb 20, 1962 (Friendship 7) NASA report - (PDF format)
- Results of the second u.s. manned orbital space flight, May 24, 1962 (Aurora 7) NASA report - (PDF format)
- This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury - NASA report (PDF format)
- Chronology of Project Mercury - NASA report (PDF format)
- The Mercury Project (Kennedy Space Center)
- Project Mercury A Chronology (Prepared by James M. Grimwood)
- Space Medicine In Project Mercury By Mae Mills Link
- Project Mercury Drawings and Technical Diagrams
- Technical Diagrams and Drawings
- Mercury-Atlas Diagrams
- Project Mercury Simulator for the PC (Orbiter)
- Project Mercury Simulator for Mac and PC
- The Mercury Redstone Project (PDF) December 1964
- Project Mercury familiarization manual (PDF) November 1961
- Various PDFs of historical Mercury documents including familiarization manuals.
- Buzz Aldrin's Race Into Space: a game that simulates the Space Race