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Pali Canon/Addendum

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This addendum is a continuation of the article Pali Canon.

This addendum will give a detailed account of the Pali Canon.

The usual arrangement of the Canon is as follows:

  1. Vinayapiṭaka
  2. Sutta- or Suttantapiṭaka
    1. Dīghanikāya
    2. Majjhimanikāya
    3. Saṃyuttanikāya
    4. Aṅguttaranikāya
    5. Khuddakanikāya
  3. Abhidhammapiṭaka

The term piṭaka appears in early inscriptions, but the earliest known references to three piṭakas are in the Parivāra and other sources of similar age.

An alternative arrangement is in nikāyas, with the Vinaya and Abhidhamma included in the Khuddakanikāya, either before or after the Sutta parts. This arrangement is used in the Burmese translation. The inscriptions approved by the Fifth Council are arranged Vinaya, Abhidhamma, Sutta,[1] while the Sixth Council recited the texts in the order listed above except for placing the Khuddakanikāya at the end.[2]

Abbreviations

  • B: 6th Council (Burma) edition; volume numbers are taken from the imprints pages of the 2008 Latin-script issue (other editions may have different or no volume numbering)
  • C: Buddha Jayanti (Ceylon / Sri Lanka) edition
  • E: English/European edition, PTS
  • K: Khmer edition
  • N: Nalanda Nagari edition
  • PTS: Pali Text Society
  • S: Siamese edition (in fact a number of Siamese/Thai editions, though not all, seem to have the same volumes)

Vinayapiṭaka

B1-5; C1-6; K1-13; S1-8; EN 5 volumes.

This division of the Canon is primarily concerned with the rules of monastic discipline, though the stories of the origins of the rules sometimes seem to take on a life of their own.

Western scholarship, based on some secondary accounts in the tradition, commonly divides the Vinaya into three parts:

  1. Suttavibhaṅga
  2. Khandhaka
  3. Parivāra

However, the title pages of the various editions usually do not use this division explicitly. Instead, BC divide as

  1. Pārājika (B1; C1)
  2. Pācittiya (B2; C2)
  3. Mahāvagga (B3; C3-4)
  4. Cūḷa- (B4) or Culla- (C5) -vagga
  5. Parivāra (B5; C6)

while KS have

  1. Mahāvibhaṅga (K1-4; S1-2)
  2. Bhikkhunīvibhaṅga (K5; S3)
  3. Mahāvagga (K6-8; S4-5)
  4. Cullavagga (K9-11; S6-7)
  5. Parivāra (K12-13; S8)

In each case 1 and 2 constitute the Suttavibhaṅga, 3 and 4 the Khandhaka. The editor of E chose to interchange these two parts, and N does likewise.

The Western division is one of literary entities.

The term vinaya is frequent in the early texts, but the earliest appearance of the name Vinayapiṭaka is in the Parivāra. According to Professor von Hinüber, tentatively supported by Professor Gethin (President of the PTS), the Vinaya is, on the whole, later than the first four nikāyas of the Suttapiṭaka.

Bibliography:

  • Sacred Books of the Buddhists ... The Book of the Discipline (Vinaya-piṭaka), [6 volumes,] translated by I. B. Horner, London [: different publishers], 1938-1966; reprinted with an appendix of translations of previously untranslated passages by Petra Kieffer-Pülz, Pali Text Society
  • Shan-chien-p'i-p'o-sha: a Chinese Version by Saṅghabhadra of Samantapāsādikā, Commentary on Pali Vinaya, translated into English for the first time by P. V. Bapat, in collaboration with A. Hirakawa, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, 1970
  • Discipline: the Canonical Buddhism of the Vinayapiṭaka, John Clifford Holt, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1981
  • "Die Gāthās des Vinayapiṭaka und ihre Parallallen", Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, 1910

There are at least four Pali subcommentaries on the Samantapāsādikā.

Suttavibhaṅga

This is a commentary on the Pātimokkha, a text not actually included in the Canon as such, though most of it appears embedded in this commentary. (It appears in the Burmese and Sinhalese collected editions of the commentaries.) This consists of a set of rules for monks and nuns. The division into Mahāvibhaṅga and Bhikkhunīvibhaṅga follows the division of the Pātimokkha into monks' and nuns' sections. Mahā means great, this division being substantially longer. Bhikkhunī means nun.

Each of these in turn is divided into groups of different types of offences, with the most serious first. The first of these is called Pārājika, and the first in the second volume of BC is called Pācittiya, so the volume titles used in BC are artificial incipit-type titles. The whole of the nuns' division is in the second volume.

The pattern of the commentary on each rule is to start with an introductory story telling how the Buddha came to lay down the rule, and then to follow it with a detailed explanation. Scholars disagree on whether the rules go back to the Buddha himself, but agree that the rest of the material is later. The earliest appearance of the name Suttavibhaṅga is in the Khandhaka's account of the Second Council.

Khandhaka

This is arranged topically in 22 khandhakas. The division into vaggas is common in the Canon. They are usually groups of 10 or so.

Each khandhaka presents rules on a particular topic, embedded in a single narrative framework, explaining as above how the Buddha came to lay down the rules, except for the last two. These give narratives of the first two Buddhist councils.

The earliest reference to this book is in the Parivāra.

Bibliography:

  • Sacred Books of the East ... Vinaya Texts, translated from the Pâli by T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann Oldenberg, 3 volumes, Clarendon, Oxford, 1881-5; reprinted by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1965 and 1968-9; includes the monks' Patimokkha as well as the Khandhaka

Parivāra

This book mostly abandons the narrative framework, analysing the vinaya in many ways.

It is first mentioned in the Dīpavaṃsa (4th century AD). It includes a long list of Vinaya teachers in Ceylon, starting from the introduction of Buddhism there around 250 BC, so even fundamentalists accept that, in its present form at least, it must be late. Scholars tend to give dates around the first century AD. BE have a set of verses at the end that seem to name the author as Dīpa or Dīpanāma. The commentaries say this text was recited at the First Council, shortly after the Buddha's death; the subcommentaries add that the list of Vinaya teachers was added by the Fourth Council in the last century BC.

Sutta- or Suttantapiṭaka

B6-28; C7-40; K14-77; S9-33

Sutta- is used by Western scholars and N. BCKS have Suttanta-.

Suttas as a genre are frequently mentioned in the early texts, but the earliest mention of a Sutt(ant)apiṭaka is in the Parivāra.

This is divided into five as listed above. The first four are fairly similar collections, mainly prose, with a narrative framework similar in style to those in the Vinaya above.

Early inscriptions and the Khandhaka's account of the First Council mention five nikāyas, but the first explicit listing is in the commentaries (5th century AD).

On the relation between the first four nikāyas and unspecified early verse books in the Khuddakanikāya, on the one hand, and the original teaching of the Buddha, on the other, Professor Lambert Schmithausen, followed by other scholars, identified three different approaches among scholars.[3]

  • The first of these argues that at least large parts of these texts show such coherence they must represent in substance the work of a single mind, that of the Buddha himself.
  • The second argues that there is very little hard evidence so very little can be known.
  • The third avoids such generalizations and concentrates on detailed examination of particular points.

In terms of dates, there are three main positions held by scholars:[4]

  • Most Buddhist and some others say these texts were essentially completed shortly after the Buddha's death
  • Many hold they were similar to their present versions by about the 3rd century BC
  • Others say substantial additions continued after this, perhaps for a long time

Professor Warder considers that each of the five was expanded over time by the addition of new suttas, and that the order of authenticity is the canonical order. That is, he considers the Dīgha has the least later material. The late Professor Hirakawa, in contrast, held that suttas started short, as in the Saṃyutta and Aṅguttara, and were later expanded and combined. L. S. Cousins, meanwhile, pictures early suttas as improvised within a pattern of teaching and only gradually becoming fixed.

Bibliography:

  • The Comparative Catalogue of Chinese Āgamas and Pāli Nikāyas, Akanuma Chizen, Hajinkaku shobō, Nagoya, 1929; reprinted Sankinbō Busshorin, 1958, and Sri Satguru, Delhi, 1990

The first four nikayas and much of the fifth have been translated by the Pali Text Society, and the first four in the Teachings of the Buddha series by Wisdom Publications; for details see separate headings below.

Selections from all five nikayas:

  • The Word of the Buddha: an Outline of the Teachings of the Buddha in the Words of the Pali Canon, compiled, translated, and explained by Nyanatiloka, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Ceylon, 1935: [2]
  • The Book of Protection: Pirit Potha, translated from the original Pali with introductory essay and explanatory notes, Piyadassi Thera, Colombo, 1975; reprinted Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 1981; translation of paritta
  • Wings to Awakening: an Anthology from the Pali Canon, by Thanissaro Bhikkhu, 6th revised edition, 2011: [3]

Selections from the first four nikayas:

  • Teachings of the Buddha: In the Buddha's Words: an Anthology of Discourses from the Pali Canon, edited and introduced by Bhikkhu Bodhi, Wisdom Publications, Somerville, Mass., 2005: [4]
  • Early Buddhist Discourses, edited, with translations, by John J. Holder, Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., Indianapolis/Cambridge, 2006
  • Basic Teachings of the Buddha: a New Translation and Compilation, with a Guide to Reading the Texts, by Glenn Wallis, Modern Library, New York, 2007
  • Sayings of the Buddha: a Selection of Suttas from the Pali Nikāyas, translated with an introduction and notes by Rupert Gethin, Oxford University Press, 2008

Selections from the first three nikayas:

  • Sacred Books of the East, volume XI: Buddhist Suttas, translated from Pâli by T. W. Rhys Davids, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1881; reprinted by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, & Dover, New York

Dīghanikāya

B6-8; C7-9; K14-19; S9-11; EN also 3 volumes

Consists of 34 "long" (dīgha) discourses (BCNS sutta; E has suttanta for some). This length classification is not precise: the shortest of these are shorter than the longest below, and so on.

It is first mentioned in the Milindapañha.

Bibliography:

  • Sacred Books of the Buddhists ... Dialogues of the Buddha, [3 volumes,] translated from the Pali of the Dīgha nikāya by T. W. and C. A. F. Rhys Davids, London ... Oxford University Press ... 1899-1921; reprinted Pali Text Society[5]
  • Thus Have I Heard: the Long Discourses of the Buddha: Dīgha nikāya, translated from the Pali by Maurice Walshe, Wisdom Publications, London, 1987
    • reprinted as Teachings of the Buddha: The Long Discourses of the Buddha: a Translation of the Dīgha nikāya, translated from the Pali by Maurice Walshe, Wisdom Publications, Boston [Mass.], 1995 (ISBN 0-86171-103-3)
  • The Buddha's Philosophy of Man: Early Indian Buddhist Dialogues, arranged and edited by Trevor Ling, Everyman, London, 1981; 10 suttas revised from the Rhys Davids translation: 2, 4, 5, 9, 12, 16, 22, 26, 27, 31
  • Ten Suttas from Dīgha Nikāya: Long Discourses of the Buddha, Burma Pitaka Association, Rangoon, 1984; reprinted Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, Sarnath [India], 1987; 1, 2, 9, 15, 16, 22, 26, 28-9, 31
  • The Long Discourses of the Buddha (Digha nikaya), Fr P. Anatriello; a study, not a translation; reviewed in Buddhist Studies Review, 7.1-2, page 109

There is a traditional commentary, Sumaṅgalavilāsinī by Buddhaghosa (5th century AD according to most scholars). This in turn has a subcommentary, attributed to Dhammapāla (10th century?).

Majjhimanikāya

B9-11; C10-12; K20-28; S12-14; EN also 3 volumes

152 medium-length (majjhima) discourses.

It is first mentioned in the Peṭakopadesa and Milindapañha.

Bibliography:

  • Sacred Books of the Buddhists ... Further Dialogues of the Buddha, [2 volumes,] translated from the Pali of the Majjhima nikāya by Lord Chalmers, London ... Oxford University Press ... 1926, 1927; available from Books on Demand, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  • Pali Text Society Translation Series ... The Collection of the Middle Length Sayings (Majjhima-nikāya), [3 volumes,] translated from the Pali by I.B. Horner, published for the Pali Text Society by Luzac, London, 1954-1959
  • The Discourses of Gotama Buddha: Middle Collection: a New Translation in an Abridged Form of the Majjhima-nikāya Taken from the Pali Text Society Edition, 1888–1902, translated by David W. Evans, Janus Publications, London, 1991
  • Teachings of the Buddha: The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: a Translation of the Majjhima nikāya, translated from the Pali: original translation by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli; translation edited and revised by Bhikkhu Bodhi; Wisdom Publications, Boston [Mass.], in association with the Barre Center for Buddhist Studies, 1995; [2nd edition], Somerville [Mass.]: ISBN 0-86171-072-X. The Pali Text Society also issues its own edition of this, which is its preferred translation. review
  • The Chinese Madhyama āgama and the Pāli Majjhima nikāya: a Comparative Study, Bhikṣu Thich Minh Chau, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 2009

Commentary: Papañcasūdanī by Buddhaghosa. Subcommentary attributed to Dhammapāla.

Saṃyuttanikāya

B12-14; C13-17; K29-39; S15-19; E 5 volumes; N 4 volumes

This book consists of discourses grouped together by topic, person or whatever. The correct number of such saṃyuttas seems to be 56 as in BEN. There are some anomalies in the headings of CS.

Because of the abbreviated way parts of the text are written, the total number of suttas is unclear. The editor of the Pali Text Society edition of the text made it 2889, Bodhi in his translation has 2904, while the commentaries give 7762. A study by Dr Rupert Gethin gives the totals for the Burmese and Sinhalese editions as 2854 and 7656, respectively, and his own calculation as 6696; he also says the total in the Thai edition is unclear.

It is first explicitly mentioned in the Milindapañha, with the shorter form Saṃyutta appearing in the Peṭakopadesa.

Bibliography:

  • Pali Text Society Translation Series ... The Book of the Kindred Sayings (Saŋyutta-nikāya), or Grouped Suttas, [5 volumes,] translated by Mrs. Rhys Davids [and] F. L. Woodward, London: published for the Pali Text Society[6] by the Oxford University Press, 1917-1930
  • Teachings of the Buddha: The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: a New Translation of the Saṃyutta nikāya, translated from the Pāli by Bhikkhu Bodhi, [2 volumes, later reprinted as 1,] Wisdom Publications, Boston [Mass.], 2000, ISBN 0-86171-331-1; the Pali Text Society also issues its own edition of this, which is its preferred translation
  • "What's in a repetition? On counting the suttas of the Saṃyutta-nikāya" R.M.L. Gethin, Journal of the Pali Text Society, volume XXIX

Commentary: Sāratthappakāsinī by Buddhaghosa. Subcommentary attributed to Dhammapāla.

Aṅguttaranikāya

B15-17; C18-23; K40-51; S20-24; E 5 volumes; N 4 volumes

This book comprises thousands of short discourses, like the previous one, but this time arranged numerically, by the numbers of items listed, from 1 to 11. The commentaries give a figure of 9557 suttas, E about 2344, while Bodhi makes it 8122.

It is first explicitly mentioned in the commentaries, but the alternative name Ekuttaranikāya appears in the Milindapañha, with the shorter form Aṅguttara appearing in the Peṭakopadesa.

Bibliography:

  • Pali Text Society Translation Series ... The Book of the Gradual Sayings (Anguttara-nikāya), or More-Numbered Suttas, [5 volumes,] translated by F. L. Woodward [and] E. M. Hare, published for the Pali Text Society[7] by the Oxford University Press, 1932-1936
  • Teachings of the Buddha: The Numerical Discourses of the Buddha: a Translation of the Aṅguttara nikāya, translated from the Pāli by Bhikkhu Bodhi, Wisdom Publications, Boston [Mass.], 2012; the Pali Text Society issues its own edition of this translation, which is its preferred version
  • "Where's that sutta? A subject index to the Aṅguttara-nikāya", Phra Khantipalo, Journal of the Pali Text Society, volume X (1985)

Commentary: Manorathapūraṇī. Only part of the "old" subcommentary attributed to Dhammapäla is known to have survived, it having been superseded by the "new" one, Sāratthamañjūsā by Sāriputta (12th century).

Khuddakanikāya

B18-28; C24-40; K52-77; S25-33

The contents of this collection vary between editions. B has the following, in various orders in different printings:

  1. Khuddakapāṭha
  2. Dhammapada
  3. Udāna
  4. Itivuttaka
  5. Suttanipāta
  6. Vimānavatthu
  7. Petavatthu
  8. Theragāthā
  9. Therīgāthā
  10. Jātaka
  11. Niddesa
  12. Paṭisambhidāmagga
  13. Apadāna
  14. Buddhavaṃsa
  15. Cariyāpiṭaka
  16. Nettippakaraṇa
  17. Peṭakopadesa
  18. Milindapañha

C has 1-17; EKNS have 1-15. The first Siamese edition has only 1-5, 11, 12. Other sources have further variations. In particular, two other works are sometimes included: most Burmese manuscripts include the Suttasaṅgaha;[5] and at least two secondary sources include the Anāgatavaṃsa: Upatissa (10th century: [8]) and Sumaṅgala's Milindapraśnaya (also known as Saddharmādāsaya; 1777/8.)[6] It is first explicitly mentioned in the commentaries, but the Milindapañha mentions Khuddaka reciters.

Bibliography:

  • A Textual and Historical Analysis of the Khuddaka Nikāya, Oliver Abeynayake, Colombo, 1984

Translations of more than one book:

  • Pali Text Society Translation Series ... Psalms of the Early Buddhists, by Mrs. Rhys Davids, [2 volumes reprinted as 1,] published for the Pali Text Society ... 1909, 1913
  • Sacred Books of the Buddhists ... The Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, [4 volumes,] London [: different publishers], 1931-1942; Pali Text Society, new edition
  • Pali Text Society Translation Series ... The Elders' Verses, [2 volumes,] translated with ... introduction[s] and notes by K. R. Norman, London: published for the Pali Text Society by Luzac, 1969, 1971

Khuddakapāṭha

In B18, C24, K52, S25

This consists of 9 short texts in prose or verse.

Professor Norman tentatively argues this is the latest text in this nikaya. Its first apparent mention is in the 5th-century commentaries, but a Chinese translation of one of them made in 489 omits it, so it may be a later interpolation.

Bibliography:

  • "Khuddaka Páṭha, a Páli text, with a translation and notes" by R. C. Childers, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series, volume IV (1869), pages 309-339
  • "The short sectiion", in Some Sayings of the Buddha According to the Pali Canon, translated by F. L. Woodward, Oxford World Classics, 1924
  • "Khuddakapāṭha: the text of the minor sayings", re-edited and translated by Mrs. Rhys Davids, in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, part I, 1931; out of print (also out of copyright)
  • The Minor Readings (Khuddakapāṭha), the First Book of the Minor Collection (Khuddakanikāya) [and] The Illustrator of Ultimate Meaning (Paramatthajotikā), Commentary on the Minor Readings, by Bhadantācariya Buddhaghosa, translated from the Pali by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli, London: published for the Pali Text Society by Luzac, 1960; though the translator accepts the traditional ascription of the commentary to Buddhaghosa, probably most scholars do not
  • In Handful of Leaves (Vol. 4), tr Thanissaro Bhikkhu, Sati Center for Buddhist Studies, Santa Cruz, 2003

Dhammapada

In B18, C24, K52, S25

423 verses in 26 chapters.

Traditionally ascribed to the Buddha. Professor Warder, on the basis of metrical analysis, gives an average date of early 3rd century BC. Some scholars place it earlier. It is first mentioned in the Milindapañha.

Selected bibliography (there are dozens of English translations):

  • the first English translation (a Latin translation by V. Fausbøll had appeared in 1855) is by F. Max Müller, republished a number of times:
    • in Buddhaghosha's Parables, translated from Burmese by Captain T. Rogers ... With an introduction, containing Buddha's Dhammapada, or "Path of Virtue", translated from Pāli by F. Max Müller, London: Trübner, 1870;
    • in The Sacred Books of the East, volume X, Part I, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1881: The Dhammapada: a Collection of Verses: Being One of the Canonical Books of the Buddhists, translated from Pâli by F. Max Müller[9]
    • in Buddhism: a Religion of Infinite Compassion: Selections from Buddhist Literature, edited with an introduction and notes by Clarence H. Hamilton;
    • separately by Watkins, 2006;
    • reprinted 2008 by Red and Black Publishers, St Petersburg, Florida, ISBN 978-1-934941-03-4;
    • revised Jack Maguire, SkyLight Pubns, Woodstock, Vermont, 2002
  • "Dhammapada: verses on Dhamma", re-edited and translated by Mrs. Rhys Davids, in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, part I, 1931; verse translation; out of print (also out of copyright)
  • The Dhammapada, translated with notes by Nārada Thera, John Murray, London, [1954]; a traditional Theravada version
  • Tr Buddharakkhita, Maha Bodhi Society, Bangalore, 1959; 4th edn, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 1996; includes Pali text; another traditional one
  • The Word of the Doctrine (Dhammapada), translated with an introduction and notes by K. R. Norman, Pali Text Society, Oxford, 1997
  • Harvard Oriental Series: Buddhist Legends, translated from the original Pali text of the Dhammapada commentary by Eugene Watson Burlingame, [3 volumes,] 1921; reprinted Pali Text Society
  • The Dhammapada: a New English Translation with the Pali Text and the First English Translation of the Commentary's Explanation of the Verses, with Notes Translated from Sinhala Sources and Critical Textual Comments, by John Ross Carter and Mahinda Palihawadana, Oxford University Press, Oxford / New York, 1987
  • The Path of Wisdom: a Christian Commentary on the Dhammapada, by Leo D. Lefebure and Peter Feldmeier, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Michigan / Peeters, Leuven [Louvain, Belgium], 2011
  • "On translating the Dhammapada", K. R. Norman, Buddhist Studies Review, 6.2, pages 153-65; reprinted in his Collected Papers, volume IV, Pali Text Society, pages 72-9

Udāna

In B18, C24, K52, S25


Consists of 80 narratives in sutta style leading up to the udānas proper, short passages nearly all in verse.

A genre by this name is mentioned in the early texts, but the first clear reference to it as a book is in the commentaries.

Bibliography:

  • The Udāna, or, the Solemn Utterances of the Buddha, translated from the Pali by Major General D. M. Strong, London: Luzac ... 1902
  • "Udāna: verses of uplift", translated by F. L. Woodward, in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, part II, 1935
  • The Udāna: Inspired Utterances of the Buddha, translated from the Pāli by John D. Ireland, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 1990; later reprinted in 1 volume with his translation of the Itivuttaka
  • Sacred Books of the Buddhists ... The Udāna, translated from the Pāli by Peter Masefield, the Pali Text Society, Oxford, 1994; the PTS's preferred translation; its declared aim is to translate in accordance with the commentary's interpretation; later reprinted in 1 volume with his translation of the Itivuttaka
  • Sacred Books of the Buddhists ... The Udāna Commentary (Paramatthadīpanī nāma Udānaṭṭhakathā), by Dhammapāla, translated from the Pāli by Peter Masefield, [2 volumes,] published by the Pali Text Society, Oxford, 1994, 1995

Itivuttaka

In B18, C24, S25; K53

Consists of 112 pieces, each consisting of prose followed by verse. In some, the verse is just a paraphrase of the prose; in others it complements it. The framing formulae ascribe the text to the Buddha.

A genre by this name is mentioned in the early texts, but the first clear reference to it as a book is in the commentaries.

Bibliography:

  • Sayings of Buddha: the Iti-vuttaka: a Pali Work of the Buddhist Canon, for the first time translated, with an introduction and notes, by Justin Hartley Moore, New York: the Columbia University Press, 1908
  • "Itivuttaka: as it was said", translated by F. L. Woodward, in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, part II, 1935
  • Tr John D. Ireland, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 1991; later reprinted in 1 volume with his translation of the Udana
  • Sacred Books of the Buddhists ... The Itivuttaka, translated by Peter Masefield, published by the Pali Text Society, Oxford, 2000; the PTS's preferred translation; its declared aim is to translate in accordance with the commentary's interpretation; later reprinted in 1 volume with his translation of the Udana
  • Pali Text Society Translation Series ... The Commentary on the Itivuttaka: the Itivuttaka-aṭṭhakathā (Paramatthadīpanī II) of Dhammapāla, translated by Peter Masefield, [2 volumes,] Pali Text Society, Oxford, 2008, 2009

Suttanipāta

In B18, S25; C25; K54

This book is divided into five sections. The first four comprise 54 suttas. The last is one long text in 16 sections plus introduction and conclusion. It is basically a poetic book, though some of the suttas embed the verse in a prose narrative framework.

Some scholars[7] consider this the oldest of all Buddhist scriptures. Others put it on a par with the first four nikāyas. It is first mentioned in the Milindapañha.

Bibliography:

  • in The Sacred Books of the East, volume X, Part II, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1881: The Sutta-nipāta: a Collection of Discourses; Being One of the Canonical Books of the Buddhists, translated from Pali by V. Fausbøll; reprinted by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi (?and by Dover, New York); separately reprinted as The Discourses of Lord Buddha, Lotus Press, Delhi, 2010
  • Harvard Oriental Series ... Buddha's Teachings: Being the Sutta-nipāta or Discourse-Collection, edited in the original Pali text, with an English translation facing it by Lord Chalmers, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press / London ... Oxford University Press, 1932
  • Sacred Books of the Buddhists ... Woven Cadences of Early Buddhists, translated by E. M. Hare, London ... Oxford University Press, 1947; reprint or revision of 1944 edition published in Ceylon; out of print
  • Pali Text Society Translation Series ... The Group of Discourses (Sutta-nipāta), volume I, translated by K. R. Norman, with alternative translations by I. B. Horner and Walpola Rahula, published by the Pali Text Society, London, 1984
    • reprinted in paperback under the title The Rhinoceros Horn and Other Early Buddhist Poems
    • volume II, revised as Pali Text Society Translation Series ... The Group of Discourses (Sutta-nipāta), second edition, translated with introduction and notes by K. R. Norman, published by the Pali Text Society, Oxford, 2001
  • The Sutta-nipāta, translated by H. Saddhatissa, Curzon Press ... 1985 ... London [/Humanities Press, New York]
  • Suttanipāta: Pali text, with translation into English and notes by N. A. Jayawickrama, University of Kelaniya, 2001
  • The Suttanipata: an Ancient Collection of the Buddha's Discourses Together with Its Commentaries, translated from the Pali by Bhikkhu Bodhi, Wisdom Publications / Pali Text Society, 2017: includes "the entire commentary, with a few minor omissions" (Preface) and "numerous excerpts from the Niddesa" ([10])
  • "Sutta-nipāta in Chinese", M. Anesaki, Journal of the Pali Text Society, 1906-7, pages 50f
  • "The Sutta nipāta in a Sanskrit version from Eastern Turkestan", A. F. R. Hoernle, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1916, pages 709-32
  • "The analysis of the Sutta-nipāta", N. A. Jayawickrama, in instalments, University of Ceylon Review, 1948-50
  • The Pādas of the Suttanipāta: with Parallels from the Āyāraṅga, Sūyagaḍa, Uttarajjhāyā, Dasaveyāliya and Isibhāsiyāiṃ, edited by Willem B. Bollée, Wezler, Reinbek, 1980
  • "Notes on the Sutta-nipāta", K. R. Norman, Sri Lanka Journal of Buddhist Studies, volume I, pages 100-116; reprinted in his Collected Papers, volume III, Pali Text Society, pages 137-56
  • "Die Suttanipāta-gāthās und ihren Parallelen", R. Otto Franke, in instalments, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 63, 64, 66

There is a commentary, traditionally called Paramatthajotikā and ascribed to Buddhaghosa, neither of these being accepted by modern scholarship. A manuscript fragment of the lost subcommentary on this has been found.

Vimānavatthu

In B19, S26; C26; K55

This book consists of 85 poems. Typically, someone, most often the Buddha's disciple Moggallāna, addresses a deity, describing their "mansion" (vimāna), and asking what meritorious deed it is the reward of, and the deity replies.

Professor Warder says the contents are all later than 200 BC and the average date may be as much as a century later. It is first mentioned in the commentaries.

Bibliography:

  • "Stories of the mansions", tr Jean Kennedy, in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, volume IV, 1st edn, 1942
  • ? Kennedy[8] mentions an ongoing translation in instalments by P. Vajiranana and B. L. Broughton appearing in the Maha-Bodhi Journal; it is not clear from this reference whether the translation was ever completed
  • "Vimānavatthu: stories of the mansions", new translation of the verses and commentarial excerpts by I. B. Horner, assisted by N. A. Jayawickrama, in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, part IV, [2nd edn,] 1974, Pali Text Society[11]
  • Sacred Books of the Buddhists ... Elucidation of the Intrinsic Meaning, So Named: the Commentary on the Vimāna Stories (Paramattha-dīpanī nāma Vimānavatthu-aṭṭhakathā), translated by Peter Masefield assisted by N. A. Jayawickrama, Pali Text Society, Oxford, 1989; the commentary is by Dhammapāla

Petavatthu

In B19, K56, S26; C27

This book is the obverse of the preceding one. It consists of 51 poems. In this case a ghost (peta) is addressed, their sufferings are described, and the explanation is in terms of demeritorious deeds, most often meanness in donations to the monks. It gives prominence to the doctrine that giving alms to monks may benefit the ghosts of one's relatives.

Date as the preceding book. It is first mentioned in the commentaries.

Bibliography:

  • "Petavatthu: Stories of the departed", translated by H. S. Gehman, in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, part IV, 1942
  • Translation of the Pali Commentaries in Celebration of the Centenary of the Pali Text Society 1881-1981 ... Elucidation of the Intrinsic Meaning, So Named: the Commentary on the Peta-Stories (Paramatthadīpanī nāma Petavatthu-aṭṭhakathā), translated by U Ba Kyaw, edited and annotated by Peter Masefield, published by the Pali Text Society, Oxford, 1980; another commentary by Dhammapāla

Theragāthā

In B19, K56-7, S26; C28

Consists of 264 poems, in roughly increasing order of length. They are ascribed to various monks, most personal disciples of the Buddha. Warder gives an average date of 4th century BC. It is first mentioned in the commentaries.

Bibliography:

  • Psalms of the Early Buddhists II: Psalms of the Brethren
  • The Elders' Verses I: Theragāthā; the PTS's preferred translation
    • also available in paperback as Poems of Early Buddhist Monks, without the translator's notes

Therīgāthā

In B19, K57, S26; C29

Corresponding work for nuns; 73 poems. Warder gives an average date of 4th century BC. It is first mentioned in the commentaries.

Bibliography:

  • Psalms of the Early Buddhists I: Psalms of the Sisters; verse translation, together with some stories from the commentary; online at [12]
  • The Elders' Verses II: Therīgāthā
  • Poems of Early Buddhist Nuns, the two translations reprinted in one paperback volume without Mr Norman's notes, but including extracts from the commentary translated by Mrs Rhys Davids.
  • Therīgāthā: Poems of the First Buddhist Women, translated by Charles Hallisey, Murty Classical Library of India, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts / London, England, 2015; includes Pali text on facing pages
  • The Commentary on the Verses of the Therīs (Therīgāthā-aṭṭhakathā Paramatthadīpanī VI) by Ācariya Dhammapāla, translated by William Pruitt, published by the Pali Text Society, Oxford, 1998

Jātaka

B22-23; C30-32; K58-63; S27-28; E 6 volumes; N 1 volume in 2

This book comprises 547 poems, one of which also includes a substantial amount of prose. They are arranged roughly in increasing order of length. They are often more or less unintelligible through lack of context. The Niddesa says the Buddha taught them with reference to the past of himself and others. The traditional commentary gives stories of the Buddha's previous lives, providing a context, not necessarily correct. The translation includes these stories, but does not always clearly distinguish Canon and commentary. Warder gives an average date of 4th century BC. A genre of this name is mentioned in the early texts.

Bibliography:

  • The Jātaka, or Stories of the Buddha's Former Births. Translated from the Pāli by various hands under the editorship of Professor E. B. Cowell, [7 volumes, including index volume,] Cambridge University Press, 1895-1907; reprinted in three volumes, Pali Text Society
  • A Concordance of Buddhist Birth Stories, Leslie Grey, Pali Text Society, Oxford, 1990
  • Entstehung und Aufbau der Jätaka-Sammlung, von Oskar von Hinüber, Mainz: Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur / Stuttgart: F. Steiner, c. 1998
  • "Les Jātakas", Léon Feer, Journal Asiatique (1875)
  • "The Jātakas and Sanskrit grammarians", by Professor F. Kielhorn, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, new series, volume XXX (1898), pages 17-21
  • "Canonical Jātaka tales in comparative perspective – the evolution of tales of the Buddha's past lives", Bhikkhu Anālayo, Fuyan Buddhist Studies, No. 7, pp. 75-100 (2012): [13]

Niddesa

B24-25; C33-34; K64-8; S29-30; E 3 volumes reprinted in 2; N 1 volume in 2.

Although this is usually described as a single book in secondary sources, even traditional ones, the actual title pages generally have no such heading, instead treating it as 2 books, Mahā- and Cūḷa- (BS) or Culla- (CE) -niddesa.

There seems to be no English translation.

This book is a commentary on parts of the Suttanipāta.

Tradition ascribes this book to the Buddha's disciple Sāriputta. Scholars do not accept this. Some date it around 250 BC, others to the 2nd century AD. It is first mentioned in the Peṭakopadesa.

There is a traditional commentary, Saddhammappajjotikā by Upasena.

Bibliography:

  • The Suttanipata: an Ancient Collection of the Buddha's Discourses Together with Its Commentaries, translated from the Pali by Bhikkhu Bodhi, Wisdom Publications / Pali Text Society, 2017: includes "the entire commentary, with a few minor omissions" (Preface) and "numerous excerpts from the Niddesa" ([14])

Paṭisambhidāmagga

B26; C35; K69-71; S31; E 2 volumes reprinted in 1

Consists of 30 treatises.

Again traditionally ascribed to Sāriputta. A wide range of dates have been suggested by scholars. It is first mentioned in the Dīpavaṃsa.

Bibliography:

  • The Path of Discrimination (Paṭisambhidāmagga), translated from the Pali by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli, with an introduction by A. K. Warder, published by the Pali Text Society, London, 1982

There is a traditional commentary, Saddhammappakāsinī, by Mahānāma

Apadāna

C36-37; K72-6; in B20-21, S32-33

Consists of 603 (BCN), 592 (S) or 589 (E) poems. Typically, each is told by a monk or nun, and tells how they performed some meritorious act in a distant past life, and as a result experienced favourable rebirths and eventually attained nirvana. The meritorious deeds are mostly devotional in nature, but sometimes moral.

Generally recognized by scholars as one of the latest books of the Canon; Warder says all later than 200 BC, average date may be as much as a century later. It is first mentioned in the commentaries.

Bibliography:

  • "Les Apadāna du Sud", Éd. Müller-Hess, Actes de dixième Congrès International des Orientalistes, Brill, 1897, pages 165-73
  • "The Apadāna of the Khuddaka Nikāya" (review), L. D. Barnett, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, volume 58 (2), pages 340-42
  • "Studies in the Apadāna", B. C. Law, Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, volume 13 (1937), pages 23-35
  • "Buddhakhetta in the Apadāna", D. L. Barua, in B. C. Law Volume, Part II, ed D. R. Bhandarkar et al., Poona, 1946, pages 183-90
  • "Grammatisches aus dem Apadānabuch", Heinz Bechert, Zeitschrift der deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, volume 108, pages 308-16
  • "Über das Apadānabuch", Heinz Bechert, Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Süd- und Ostasiens, Band II, 1958, pages 1-21
  • "A critical edition, with translation, of selected portions of the Pāli Apadāna", Sally Mellick, PhD thesis, University of Oxford, 1993
  • "The Pāli Apadāna collection", Sally Mellick Cutler, Journal of the Pali Text Society, volume XX (1994), pages 1-42
  • Visuddhajanavilāsini, or, the Commentary to the Apadāna, Part II: English translation, Daya Gunasekara, Buddhist Cultural Centre, Dehiwala, Sri Lanka, 2011
  • "Nibbāna as the fruit of meritorious deeds in the Apadāna", in Asian Horizons, Monash University Publishing, Melbourne, 2015
  • "A sudy of the Apadāna, including an edition and annotated translation of the second, third and fourth chapters", Chris Clark, PhD thesis, University of Sidney, 2015

There seems to be no English translation.

Buddhavaṃsa

In B21, C38, K77, S33

Another verse book, in which the Buddha tells of previous Buddhas and the acts of merit he performed in previous lives towards them.

Professor Warder says this is later than the Apadāna, Professor von Hinüber the reverse. It is first mentioned in the Milindapañha.

Bibliography:

  • "Buddhavaṃsa: the lineage of the Buddhas", translated by Bimala Churn Law, in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, part III, [1st edition,] 1938
  • The Genealogy of the Buddhas, tr M. V. Takin, Bombay University Publications, 1969
  • "Chronicle of Buddhas (Buddhavaṃsa)", translated by I. B. Horner, in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, Part III, new edition, 1975, Pali Text Society
  • Translations of the Pali commentaries in celebration of the centenary of the Pali Text Society ... The Clarifier of Sweet Meaning (Madhuratthavilāsinī), by Buddhadatta Thera, translated by I. B. Horner, Pali Text Society, London, 1978

Cariyāpiṭaka

In B21, C38, K77, S33 Verse book in which the Buddha tells of his practice of the perfections in previous lives.

Warder dates this as later than the Apadāna. It is first mentioned in the Milindapañha.

There is a traditional commentary by Dhammapāla.

Bibliography:

  • "Cariyāpiṭaka: The collection of the ways of conduct", translated by Bimala Churn Law, in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, part III, [1st edition,] 1938
  • "Basket of conduct (Cariyāpiṭaka)", translated by I. B. Horner, in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, Part III, new edition, 1975, Pali Text Society

Nettippakaraṇa or Netti

C39; in B27; also in the Phayre manuscript (1841/2), and in the inscriptions approved by the Fifth Council (1871)

The title is Netti in B, Nettippakaraṇa in C, Nettipakaraṇa in the PTS edition (which is not included in its set of the Canon).

This book deals with methods of interpretation.

The Netti itself says that the methods were taught by the Buddha's disciple Kaccāna (also Kaccāyana), and the colophon says he composed the book, that it was approved by the Buddha and that it was recited at the First Council. Scholars do not take this literally, but the translator admits the methods may go back to him. Suggested dates range from 2nd century BC to around the Christian era. It is first mentioned in the commentaries, but the earliest source so far discovered that regards it as canonical is Ñāṇābhivaṃsa's Sādhu(jana)vilāsinī, c. 1800.

There are at least three commentaries, and a subcommentary on the oldest.

Bibliography:

  • Pali Text Society Translation Series ... The Guide (Netti-ppakaraṇaṃ), according to Kaccāna Thera, translated from the Pali by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli, London: published for the Pali Text Society by Luzac, 1962

Peṭakopadesa

C40; in B27; also in the inscriptions approved by the Fifth Council (1871)

A similar work to the preceding, with a lot of overlap. The chapter colophons ascribe it to Kaccāna. Scholars disagree on which came first. It is first clearly mentioned in Dhammapāla's commentary on the Netti, which also uses the short form Peṭaka. The latter also appears in Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga (5th century), but it is not clear whether this refers to the same work. The earliest source so far discovered that regards it as canonical is Ñāṇābhivaṃsa's Sādhu(jana)vilāsinī, c. 1800.

A Pali commentary was written in the 20th century.

Bibliography:

  • Pali Text Society Transaltion Series ... The Piṭaka-Disclosure (Peṭakopadesa), according to Kaccāna Thera, translated from the Pali by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli, London: published for the Pali Text Society by Luzac, 1964

Milindapañha

B28; also in the inscriptions approved by the Fifth Council (1871)

A dialogue between King Menander of Bactria (2nd century BC) and a Buddhist monk called Nāgasena.

According to Hinüber, the later parts of this book were complete by the 5th century AD. It is first mentioned in the commentaries. The earliest source so far discovered that includes it in the Canon is the inscriptions of the latter produced at Mandalay in the 1860s.

Bibliography:

  • Sacred Books of the East ... Questions of King Milinda, translated from the Pali by T. W. Rhys Davids, [2 volumes,] Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1890, 1894; reprinted by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi (?& Dover, New York)
  • Sacred Books of the Buddhists ... Milinda's Questions, translated from the Pali by I. B. Horner ... [2 volumes,] London: Luzac, 1963, 1964
  • The Milinda-Questions: an Inquiry into Its Place in the History of Buddhism with a Theory As to Its Author, by Mrs. Rhys Davids, London: Routledge, 1930

Abhidhammapiṭaka

B29-40; C41-52; K78-110; S34-45

Consists of seven books. BKNS have them in the following order:

  1. Dhammasaṅgaṇi
  2. Vibhaṅga
  3. Dhātukathā
  4. Puggalapaññatti
  5. Kathāvatthu
  6. Yamaka
  7. Paṭṭhāna

C places 5 before 3.

Abhidhamma has been variously described as philosophy, psychology, metaphysics etc. L. S. Cousins says that the abhidhamma methodology looks at things in terms of occasions or events instead of sequences or processes.[9]

The Parivāra says the Buddha taught this, but scholars agree these texts are late, giving various dates from 4th century BC to 2nd AD. However, some say the methods are older. There are some passages in the suttas that may refer to abhidhamma, or this may be two separate words, abhi dhamma. The first clear reference to abhidhamma is in the Suttavibhaṅga, but the name Abhidhammapiṭaka first appears in the Parivāra, which also refers to seven books. These are first listed in the Milindapañha.

Bibliography:

  • Guide through the Abhidhamma-piṭaka, Being a Synopsis of the Philosophical Collection Belonging to the Buddhist Pali Canon, Followed by an Essay on the Paṭicca-samuppāda, by Nyanatiloka, Colombo, printed by The Associated Newspapers of Ceylon ltd, 1938

The traditional ascription of the commentaries on this section to Buddhaghosa is a matter of disagreement among scholars. There is a subcommentary on these commentaries, by Ānanda, known as the Mūlaṭīkā, which in turn has a subsubcommentary known as the Anuṭīkā.

Dhammasaṅgaṇi

B29; C41; K78-9; S34

Lists and classifies "dhammas", variously translated as ideas, phenomena etc.

Dates have been suggested from 4th to 2nd century BC.

Bibliography:

  • A Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics of the Fourth Century B.C., Being a Translation, Now Made for the First Time from the Original Pali, of the First Book in the Abhidhamma piṭaka, Entitled Dhammasangani (Compendium of States or Phenomena), with introductory essay and notes by Caroline A. F. Rhys Davids, London: Royal Asiatic Society, 1900; 3rd edition, Pali Text Society Translation Series, 1974
  • The Dhammasaṅganī: Enumeration of the Ultimate Realities, translated by U Kyaw Khine, Department for the Promotion and Propagation of the Sasana, Rangoon, ?1996; reprinted by Sri Satguru Pubns, Delhi, 2 volumes
  • Pali Text Society Translation Series ... The Expositor (Atthasālinī), Buddhaghosa's Commentary on the Dhammasangaṇī, the First Book of the Abhidhamma piṭaka, [2 volumes,] translated by Pe Maung Tin ... edited and revised by Mrs. Rhys Davids ... published for the Pali Text Society by the Oxford University Press ... 1920, 1921; reprinted in 1 volume

Vibhaṅga

B30; C42-43; K80-82; S35

This book consists of 18 chapters on various topics, which use ideas in the preceding book. Scholars disagree which came first.

Bibliography:

  • Pali Text Society Translation Series ... The Book of Analysis (Vibhaṅga): the Second Book of the Abhidhamma piṭaka, translated from the Pāḷi of the Burmese Chaṭṭhasaṅgīti edition by Paṭhamakyaw Ashin Thiṭṭila (Seṭṭhila) Aggamahāpaṇḍita, London: published for the Pali Text Society by Luzac, 1969
  • Sacred Books of the Buddhists ... The Dispeller of Delusion ... [2 volumes] translated from the Pali by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli, revised for publication by L. S. Cousins, Nyanaponika Mahāthera and C. M. M. Shaw ... Pali Text Society, 1987, 1991; the commentary

Dhātukathā

In B31, C47, K83, S36

This book combines ideas from the two preceding abhidhamma books.

Dates have been suggested in the 3rd and last centuries BC.

Bibliography:

  • Pali Text Society Translation Series ... Discourse on Elements (Dhātu-kathā): the Third Book of the Abhidhamma piṭaka, a translation with charts and explanations by U Nārada, Mūla Paṭṭhāna Sayadaw ... assisted by Thein Nyun, London: published for the Pali Text Society by Luzac, 1962

Puggalapaññatti

In B31, C47, K83, S36

This book deals with classifications of persons, which are arranged numerically, from 1-fold to 10-fold.

Bibliography:

  • Pali Text Society Translation Series ... Designation of Human Types (Puggala-paññatti), translated into English for the first time by Bimala Charan Law, London / New York / ... published for the Pali Text Society by the Oxford University Press, [1922?]

Kathāvatthu

B32; C44-46; K84-6; S37; E 2 volumes reprinted in 1

This book is a collection of debates on points of doctrine. The text does not identify the participants, but tradition, followed by many scholars, interprets the debates as between Theravada and other schools of Buddhism. However, L. S. Cousins says

In spiritual traditions the world over, instructors have frequently employed apparent contradictions as part of their teaching method – perhaps to induce greater awareness in the pupil or to bring about a deeper and wider view of the subject in hand. The Pali Canon contains many explicit examples of such methods. (Indeed much of the Kathāvatthu makes better sense in these terms than as sectarian controversy.)[10]

According to tradition, this work was compiled by the venerable Moggaliputta Tissa in his role as leader of the Third Council, which took place around 250 BC, based on a framework taught by the Buddha. Some scholars accept this date; others hold that additions were made as new "heresies" came to the attention of the authorities.

Bibliography:

  • Pali Text Society Translation Series ... Points of Controversy, or, Subjects of Discourse, Being a Translation of the Kathāvatthu from the Abhidhamma-piṭaka, by Shwe Zan Aung and Mrs. Rhys Davids, published for the Pali Text Society by H. Milford, {Oxford University Press] ... 1915
  • The Debates Commentary (Kathāvatthuppakaraṇa-aṭṭhakathā), translated into English for the first time by Bimala Charan Law, London, H. Milford ... Oxford University Press ... 1940 [Pali Text Society]; the commentary

Yamaka

B33-35; C48-49; K87-93; S38-39; E 2 volumes; N 3 volumes

In 10 chapters on various topics, consisting of converse pairs (yamaka) of questions and answers.

It has been suggested this may be the latest Abhidhamma book.

Bibliography:

  • The Book on Pairs (Yamaka), tr Nārada & Kumārābhivaṃsa, Penang [Malaysia], 1998; 1st volume; apparently no more published
  • The Book of Pairs and Its Commentary: a Translation of the Yamaka and Yamakappakaraṇaṭṭhakathā, [3 volumes?,] translated by C. M. M. Shaw and L. S. Cousins [respectively], published by the Pali Text Society [forthcoming]

Paṭṭhāna

B36-40; C50-52; K94-110; S40-45; E 4 volumes reprinted in 2; N 6 volumes

Treats causality and conditionality.

Yamada makes this the latest Abhidhamma book.

Bibliography:

  • Pali Text Society Translation Series ... Conditional Relations (Paṭṭhāna), Being ... the Chaṭṭhasaṅgāyana Text of the Seventh Book of the Abhidhamma piṭaka, a translation by U Narada Mūla Paṭṭhāna Sayadaw ... assisted by Thein Nyun, 1969-, in progress, 2 volumes so far, PTS
  • Guide to Conditional Relations [...], by U Narada Mūla Paṭṭhāna Sayadaw ... assisted by [...] Thein Nyun
    • Part I, being a guide to pages 1-12 ... an explanation of the conditions and of the methods for working out the answers in the 6 chapters of the faultless triplet Paṭṭhāna where only the numbers of answers are given ... Pali Text Society, London, 1979
    • Part II, being a guide to pages 13-141 ... Department of Religious Affairs, Rangoon, 1986
  • "The Paṭṭhāna and the development of the Theravādin Abhidhamma", L. S. Cousins, Journal of the Pali Text Society, volume IX (1981), pages 22-46

Notes

  1. see Bollée's paper in Pratidanam (Kuiper Festschrift), Mouton, The Hague/Paris, 1968, pages 493-9
  2. The Nation (Rangoon), May 21, 1956: page 1, columns 3 & 4; page 4, column 3
  3. Ruegg & Schmithausen, Earliest Buddhism and Madhyamaka, Brill, Leiden, 1990, pages 1f; Williams, Buddhist Thought, Routledge, 1st ed, 2000, pages 32f/2nd ed, 2012, pages 23f; Anderson, Pain and Its Ending, Curzon, 1999, page 17
  4. [1], page 39
  5. Elizarenkova & Toporov, The Pali Language, Nauka, Moscow, 1976, page 40
  6. Abeynayake, in bibliography, pages 38-40, cited in Encyclopaedia of Buddhism, ed G. P. Malalasekera, Government of Sri Lanka, volume VI, fascicle 2, 1999, pages 209f.
  7. Nakamura, Indian Buddhism, Kansai University of Foreign Studies, Hirakata, Japan, 1980; reprinted by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1987, 1989, page 46
  8. page xv
  9. "Pali oral literature", in Buddhist Studies, ed Denwood and Piatigorski, Curzon, London, 1982/3; reprinted in Buddhism, ed Paul Williams, 8 volumes, Routledge, 2005
  10. in Buddhist Studies in Honour of Hammalawa Saddhatissa, ed Dhammapala, Gombrich and Norman, University of Jayawardenepura, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka, 1984, page 67