Opiate dependence

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In medicine, opiate dependence is dependency, both both physiological and emotional, upon opioid analgesics.[1]


Opioid agonist therapy includes buprenorphine and methadone. Although buprenorphinenaloxone may be less effective than methadone[2], it has more predictable dosing[3], and can be prescribed by qualifying office-based physicians.[4]

Advice for the treatment of acute pain among patients on chronic methadone or buprenorphine is available.[5]


  1. Anonymous (2015), Opiate dependence (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  2. Schottenfeld RS, Chawarski MC, Pakes JR, Pantalon MV, Carroll KM, Kosten TR (2005). "Methadone versus buprenorphine with contingency management or performance feedback for cocaine and opioid dependence.". Am J Psychiatry 162 (2): 340-9. DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.2.340. PMID 15677600. Research Blogging. Review in: Evid Based Ment Health. 2005 Nov;8(4):112
  3. Simoens S, Matheson C, Bond C, Inkster K, Ludbrook A (2005). "The effectiveness of community maintenance with methadone or buprenorphine for treating opiate dependence.". Br J Gen Pract 55 (511): 139-46. PMID 15720937. PMC PMC1463190.
  4. Sullivan LE, Fiellin DA (2008). "Narrative review: buprenorphine for opioid-dependent patients in office practice.". Ann Intern Med 148 (9): 662-70. PMID 18458279.
  5. Alford DP, Compton P, Samet JH (2006). "Acute pain management for patients receiving maintenance methadone or buprenorphine therapy". Ann. Intern. Med. 144 (2): 127–34. PMID 16418412[e]