Modular form

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A modular form is a type of function in complex analysis, with connections to algebraic geometry and number theory. Modular forms played a key rôle in Andrew Wiles' highly-publicized proof of Fermat's last theorem.

The modular group

The special linear group of dimension 2 over the integers, , consisting of 2 by 2 matrices with integer entries and determinant 1, is referred to as the modular group. An action of the modular group may be defined on the upper half-plane , consisting of those complex numbers with a strictly positive imaginary part, as follows:

,

where

and . The proof that this is indeed an action, respecting the group operation and inverses, is beyond the scope of this article, though it is easy to verify that the half-plane is closed under it.

Weak modularity

A function , where denotes the Riemann sphere, is said to be weakly modular of weight if for all .