African political leader (1909-1972), both of his country and in Pan-Africanist movements, who became the first president of Ghana in 1957; eventually establishing, in 1964, a one-party state he controlled. After working as a teacher, he helped create the Pan-African Congress in 1945. He returned to Ghana in 1947 and became general secretary of the newly founded United Gold Coast Convention but split from it in 1949 to form the Convention People's party (CPP). Active in forming the pan-African Organization of African Unity (now the African Union in 1963. Died in exile.