Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir was historically an Indian Princely State right up until 1947, when it was given the choice to unite with either India or Pakistan. The reigning Maharajah of Jammu and Kashmir at the time of the partition of India, Maharajah Sir Hari Singh signed an agreement to accede to India. This decision provoked the Muslim-majority Kashmiri population to rebel. This signaled the beginning of the First Indo-Pakistani War,which is the only instance where one Dominion declared war on another. India and Pakistan have fought 2 wars since. The Maharajah abdicated the throne in 1951, and was succeeded by his son, Karan Singh, who became Sadi-i-Riyasat.
Division of Jammu and Kashmir
Since 1947, Jammu and Kashmir has been divided along the Line of Control into 2 zones - the State of Jammu and Kashmir, which has its capital at Srinigar, and Azad Kashmir, which has its capital at Muzaffarabad.
Proposals for resolution of the dispute
Over the years, there have been many proposals of how to attempt to resolve the dispute. These range from incorporating the whole of the former Indian Princely State into either India or Pakistan, or reuniting both parts into an independent state with full membership of the British Commonwealth.