Hyperuricemia

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In medicine, hyperuricemia is "excessive uric acid or urate in blood as defined by its solubility in plasma at 37 degrees C; greater than 0.42mmol per liter (7.0mg/dL) in men or 0.36mmol per liter (6.0mg/dL) in women. This condition is caused by overproduction of uric acid or impaired renal clearance. Hyperuricemia can be acquired, drug-induced or genetically determined (Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome). It is associated with hypertension and gout."[1][2] Niacin[3] can increase serum uric acid levels.

Hyperuricemia may[4][5] or may not[6] be associated with vascular disease[2] and chronic kidney disease[7][2] and metabolic syndrome[8]. If hyperuricemia is associated with vascular disease, a meta-analysis suggests that the strength of association is unlikely to be large enough for the presence of hyperuricemia to help in the prediction of vascular disease.[9]

Randomized controlled trials suggests that treatment of hyperuricemia may:

References

  1. Anonymous (2015), Hyperuricemia (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Feig DI, Kang DH, Johnson RJ (October 2008). "Uric acid and cardiovascular risk". N. Engl. J. Med. 359 (17): 1811–21. DOI:10.1056/NEJMra0800885. PMID 18946066. Research Blogging.
  3. Elam MB, Hunninghake DB, Davis KB, et al (September 2000). "Effect of niacin on lipid and lipoprotein levels and glycemic control in patients with diabetes and peripheral arterial disease: the ADMIT study: A randomized trial. Arterial Disease Multiple Intervention Trial". JAMA 284 (10): 1263–70. PMID 10979113[e]
  4. Fang J, Alderman MH (May 2000). "Serum uric acid and cardiovascular mortality the NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study, 1971-1992. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey". JAMA 283 (18): 2404–10. PMID 10815083[e]
  5. Choi HK, Curhan G (August 2007). "Independent impact of gout on mortality and risk for coronary heart disease". Circulation 116 (8): 894–900. DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.703389. PMID 17698728. Research Blogging.
  6. Culleton BF, Larson MG, Kannel WB, Levy D (July 1999). "Serum uric acid and risk for cardiovascular disease and death: the Framingham Heart Study". Ann. Intern. Med. 131 (1): 7–13. PMID 10391820[e]
  7. 7.0 7.1 Siu YP, Leung KT, Tong MK, Kwan TH (January 2006). "Use of allopurinol in slowing the progression of renal disease through its ability to lower serum uric acid level". Am. J. Kidney Dis. 47 (1): 51–9. DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2005.10.006. PMID 16377385. Research Blogging.
  8. Onat A, Uyarel H, Hergenç G, et al (October 2006). "Serum uric acid is a determinant of metabolic syndrome in a population-based study". Am. J. Hypertens. 19 (10): 1055–62. DOI:10.1016/j.amjhyper.2006.02.014. PMID 17027827. Research Blogging.
  9. Wheeler JG, Juzwishin KD, Eiriksdottir G, Gudnason V, Danesh J (March 2005). "Serum uric acid and coronary heart disease in 9,458 incident cases and 155,084 controls: prospective study and meta-analysis". PLoS Med. 2 (3): e76. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020076. PMID 15783260. PMC 1069667. Research Blogging.
  10. Feig DI, Soletsky B, Johnson RJ (August 2008). "Effect of allopurinol on blood pressure of adolescents with newly diagnosed essential hypertension: a randomized trial". JAMA 300 (8): 924–32. DOI:10.1001/jama.300.8.924. PMID 18728266. Research Blogging.
  11. Noman A, Ang DS, Ogston S, Lang CC, Struthers AD (2010). "Effect of high-dose allopurinol on exercise in patients with chronic stable angina: a randomised, placebo controlled crossover trial.". Lancet 375 (9732): 2161-7. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60391-1. PMID 20542554. Research Blogging.