One cause is hypoalphalipoproteinemia.
Clinical practice guidelines state: "Patients in whom triglycerides >500 mg/dL should receive strict diet therapy including avoidance of alcohol, restriction of dietary fat, and avoidance of concentrated carbohydrates (sweets). For triglycerides >1000 mg/dL a very low fat diet should be instituted quickly to reduce chylomicronemia and risk of acute pancreatitis"
Regarding treatment, the AIM-HIGH found that niacin did not reduce the risk of cardiovascular events.
Regarding treating triglycerides among patients exclusively with diabetes mellitus with levels less than 750 mg per deciliter (8.5 mmol per liter), "the combination of fenofibrate and simvastatin did not reduce the rate of fatal cardiovascular events, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, as compared with simvastatin alone" according to the ACCORD randomized controlled trial.  However, among the diabetics with triglycerides about 204 and HDL cholesterol less than 34, there was significant better (primary outcome over 5 years reduced from 17% to 12%).
- Anonymous (2015), Hypertriglyceridemia (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
- [Management of Dyslipidemia Working Group. VA/DoD clinical practice guideline for the management of dyslipidemia. Washington (DC): Department of Veterans Affairs, Department of Defense; 2006. 140 p.
- Anonymous (2011 [last update]). NHLBI - Press Release. public.nhlbi.nih.gov. Retrieved on July 26, 2011.
- ACCORD Study Group. Ginsberg HN, Elam MB, Lovato LC, Crouse JR, Leiter LA et al. (2010). "Effects of combination lipid therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus.". N Engl J Med 362 (17): 1563-74. PMID 20228404.