Flavivirus

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Flavivirus genus
Virus classification
Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Family: Flaviviridae
Genus: Flavivirus
Vectors
  • Mosquito-borne
  • Tick-borne
  • No Known Vector

Flavivirus is a genus of the family Flaviviridae[1], named after the yellow fever virus (Flavi = yellow). Each year, this genus causes hundreds of millions of infections, with symptoms ranging from assymptomatic, to fever and rash, neurological damage, encephalitis, hemorrhaging, shock and death. Of the flaviviruses, the four dengue fever viruses cause the most disease each year. Both epidemic and sylvatic (jungle) strains have been found for many flaviviruses. Flaviviruses are arboviruses and are transmitted by ticks, mosquitoes, and no-see-ums (their vectors). Birds serve as a large reservoir for many viruses, but mammals, including humans and horses, are mostly dead-end hosts.

The flavivirus genus includes (see table below) the mosquito borne West Nile virus (WNV), Yellow fever virus (YFV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLE) and the viruses that causes dengue fever (DENV1-4). Flavivirus also includes Tick-borne Encephalitis virus, Russian-spring summer encephalitis (RSSE) and several other viruses which cause encephalitis. Some flavivirus cause sever hemorrhagic fevers, including dengue and Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus.

Flavivirus share a common size (40-60 microinches), symmetry (enveloped, icosahedral nucleocapsid), nucleic acid (positive-sense, single stranded RNA approximately 10,000-11,000 bases), and appearance in the electron microscope.

Table of Flavivirus Species and Sub-species

VirusVirus GroupVector
Yellow fever virus(YFV)Yellow Fevermosquito
Banzi virus (BANV)Yellow Fevermosquito
Bouboui virus (BOUV)Yellow Fevermosquito
Edge Hill virus (EHV)Yellow Fevermosquito
Jugra virus (JUGV)Yellow Fevermosquito
Saboya virus (SABV)Yellow Fevermosquito
Sepik virus(SEPV)Yellow Fevermosquito
Uganda S virus (UGSV)Yellow Fevermosquito
Wesselsbron virus(WESSV)Yellow Fevermosquito
Japanese Encephalitis virus(JEV)Japanese Encephalitismosquito
AlfuyJapanese Encephalitismosquito
West Nile virus(WNV)Japanese Encephalitismosquito
Kunjin (KUNV) a subtype of WNVJapanese Encephalitismosquito
St. Louis Enchephalitis(SLEV)Japanese Encephalitismosquito
Murray Valley Encephalitis(MVEV)Japanese Encephalitis mosquito
Usutu virus(USUV)Japanese Encephalitismosquito
Cacipacore virus(CPCV)Japanese Encephalitis mosquito
Koutango virus(KOUV)Japanese Encephalitismosquito
Yaounde virus(YAOV)Japanese Encephalitismosquito
Dengue-1 virusDenguemosquito
Dengue-2 virusDenguemosquito
Dengue-3 virusDenguemosquito
Dengue-4 virusDenguemosquito
KedougaDenguemosquito
Aroa (AROAV)Aroamosquito
Bussuquara (BUSSV)Aroamosquito
IguapeAroamosquito
NaranjalAroamosquito
Ntaya virus(NTAV)Ntayamosquito
Bagaza virus(BAGV)Ntayamosquito
Ilheus virus(ILHV)Ntayamosquito
Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus(ITV)Ntayamosquito
RocioNtayamosquito
Tembusu virus(TMUV)Ntayamosquito
Spondweni(ZIKV)Spondwenimosquito
Zika virus(ZIKV)Spondwenimosquito
Kokobera (KOKV)Kokoberamosquito
New Mapoon virus (tentative species)Kokoberamosquito
Stratford virusKokoberamosquito
Entebbe Bat virus(ENTV)Entebbe BatNo Known Vector
Yokose(YOKV)Entebbe BatNo Known Vector
Rio Bravo virusRio BravoNo Known Vector
Montana myotis leukoencephalitis virus(MMLV)Rio BravoNo Known Vector
Bukalasa bat virus(BBV)Rio BravoNo Known Vector
Carey Island virus(CIV)Rio BravoNo Known Vector
Dakar bat virus(DBV))Rio BravoNo Known Vector
Phnom Penh bat virus(PPBV)Rio BravoNo Known Vector
Hepatitis C virus(HVC))No Known Vector
Modoc virus(MODV)ModocNo Known Vector
Apoi virus(APOIV)ModocNo Known Vector
Modoc virusModocNo Known Vector
Cowbone Ridge virus(CRV)ModocNo Known Vector
Jutiapa virus(JUTV)ModocNo Known Vector
Sal Vieja virus(SVV)ModocNo Known Vector
San Perlita virus(SPV)ModocNo Known Vector
Tick-borne encephalitis(TBEV)Mammalian tick-borneTick
Powassan(POWV)Mammalian tick-borneTick
Omsk hemorrhagic fever(OHFV)Mammalian tick-borneTick
Langat(LGTV)Mammalian tick-borneTick
Louping ill virus (LIV)Mammalian tick-borneTick
Alkhurma(ALKV) a subtype of KFDMammalian tick-borneTick
Gadgets Gully virus (GGYV)Mammalian tick-borneTick
Kyasanur Forest disease virus(KFDV)Mammalian tick-borneTick
Royal Farm virus(RFV)Mammalian tick-borneTick
Russian-spring summer encephalitis Mammalian tick-borneTick
KarshiMammalian tick-borneTick
Kumlinge(KUM)Mammalian tick-borneTick
Meaban(MEAV)Seabird tick-borneTick
Kadam virus (KADV)Seabird tick-borneTick
Saumarez Reef(SREV)Seabird tick-borneTick
Tyuleniy virus(TYUV)Seabird tick-borneTick
Cell fusing agent virusQuestionable (mosquito)
Culex flavivirusQuestionable (mosquito)
Kamiti Rivir virusQuestionable (mosquito)
NgoyeTentative speciesIsolated from tick
Tamana bat virusTentative speciesIsolated from a bat


Note: Until recently, Kadam was considered part of the mammal tick-borne group. (Grard, et al. Virology, 361:80-92, 2007.

References

  1. ICTVdB Management (2006). 00.026.0.01. Flavivirus. In: ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database, version 4. Büchen-Osmond, C. (Ed), Columbia University, New York, USA http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ICTVdb/ICTVdB/