Exercise and body weight/Bibliography

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Primary Research Papers

1.Redinger RN (2009) Fat storage and the biology of energy expenditure. Translational Research: J Lab Clin Med 154:52-60 ‘Excessive adiposity results from an imbalance in energy homeostasis, whereby the consequences of excessive food intake are not balanced by increased energy expenditure.’ ‘Recent advances regarding the roles of central and autonomic nervous system regulation involved in fat remodeling are discussed, including the hypothalamic regulation of food intake and intestinal modulation, which affects satiety and peripheral energy expenditure.’

2.Miyaki A. et al. (2009) Effect of habitual exercise on body weight and arterial function in overweight and obese men Am J Cardiol 104:823-8 'Aerobic exercise training significantly reduced their body weight and resulted in a significant decrease in body mass index.'

3.Catenacci VA, Wyatt HR (2007) The role of physical activity in producing and maintaining weight loss. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 3:518-29 'Epidemiologic, cross-sectional, and prospective correlation studies suggest an essential role for physical activity in weight-loss maintenance, and post hoc analysis of prospective trials shows a clear dose-response relationship between physical activity and weight maintenance. This article reviews the role of physical activity in producing and maintaining weight loss.'

4. Donnelly JE et al. (2009) Appropriate physical activity intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 41:459-71 '...we have reexamined the evidence from 1999 to determine whether there is a level at which PA is effective for prevention of weight gain, for weight loss, and prevention of weight regain. Evidence supports moderate-intensity PA between 150 and 250 min wk(-1) to be effective to prevent weight gain. Moderate-intensity PA between 150 and 250 min wk(-1) will provide only modest weight loss. Greater amounts of PA (>250 min wk(-1)) have been associated with clinically significant weight loss...However, no evidence from well-designed randomized controlled trials exists to judge the effectiveness of PA for prevention of weight regain after weight loss. Resistance training does not enhance weight loss but may increase fat-free mass and increase loss of fat mass and is associated with reductions in health risk.'

5.Reilly JJ et al.(2006) Physical activity to prevent obesity in young children: cluster randomised controlled trial BMJ 333:1041 'Physical activity can significantly improve motor skills but did not reduce body mass index in young children in this trial.'

6.Jakicic JM et al.(2008) Effect of exercise on 24-month weight loss maintenance in overweight women. Arch Int Med 168:1550-9 'Analysis showed that individuals sustaining a loss of 10% or more of initial body weight at 24 months reported performing more physical activity (1835 kcal/wk or 275 min/wk) compared with those sustaining a weight loss of less than 10% of initial body weight (P < .001).'

7.MacLean PS et al. (2009) Regular exercise attenuates the metabolic drive to regain weight after long-term weight loss Am J Physiol 297:R793-802 'Weight loss is accompanied by several metabolic adaptations that work together to promote rapid, efficient regain. We employed a rodent model of regain to examine the effects of a regular bout of treadmill exercise on these adaptations.Regular exercise decreased the rate of regain early in relapse and lowered the defended body weight.During weight maintenance, regular exercise reduced the biological drive to eat so that it came closer to matching the suppressed level of energy expenditure. Observations indicate that regimented exercise altered several metabolic adaptations to weight reduction in a manner that would coordinately attenuate the propensity to regain lost weight.'

8.Schoeller DA et al.(1997) How much physical activity is needed to minimize weight gain in previously obese women? to test whether physical activity measured soon after weight loss predicted weight maintenance and to determine how much physical activity was required to optimize maintenance. Retrospective analyses of weight regain as a function of energy expended in physical activity indicated a threshold for weight maintenance of 47 kJ x kg body wt(-1) x d(-1). This corresponds to an average of 80 min/d of moderate activity or 35 min/d of vigorous activity added to a sedentary lifestyle.'