English law

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The laws of England and Wales come from a variety of places, but have a number of important foundational ideas. The constitution is unwritten, which is an anomalous position when compared to other countries. Like other democracies, the powers of law are separated between the executive branch (the ruling government, it's civil servants and state agencies like the police), the legislative branch (Parliament) and the judicial branch. The supremacy of Parliament doctrine is also foundational, and states that the laws passed by Parliament are the supreme law of the land. Although the United Kingdom is a signatory of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, these guarantees of freedom do not override the law. Instead, the Human Rights Act 1998 sets out a procedure by which new laws must be stated to be compatible with the rights granted by the Convention, and gives procedures by which existing laws can be made compatible through both domestic and European courts. Like other democracies, the British unwritten constitution also sets in place a rule of law, by which individuals actions are governed not by the whim of individuals in charge, but by a reasonably stable set of laws.