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In cardiology, echocardiography is "ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic."[1]

There is about a ±15% variation in measuring the ejection fraction; the variability can be reduced with education of echocardiographers.[2]

Heart failure

Echocardiography measures the fractional shortening of the ventricle which can estimate the left ventricular ejection fraction in order to detect heart failure.[3][4][5]

Various parameters on echocardiogram can estimate left ventricular end diastolic pressure.[6]

Handheld echocardiography

Handheld echocardiography is an option.[7] may help.

"The rapid acquisition of images by skilled ultrasonographers who use PME yields accurate assessments of ejection fraction and some but not all cardiac structures in many patients". [8]


  1. Anonymous (2015), Echocardiography (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  2. Johri, Amer M.; Michael H. Picard, John Newell, Jane E. Marshall, Mary Etta E. King, Judy Hung (2011-08-01). "Can a Teaching Intervention Reduce Interobserver Variability in LVEF Assessment: A Quality Control Exercise in the Echocardiography Lab". J Am Coll Cardiol Img 4 (8): 821-829. DOI:



    . Retrieved on 2011-08-30.


    Research Blogging

  3. Tortoledo FA, Fernandez GC, Quinones MA (1983). "An accurate and simplified method to calculate angiographic left ventricular ejection fraction". Catheterization and cardiovascular diagnosis 9 (4): 357-62. PMID 6627386[e]
  4. Quinones MA, Waggoner AD, Reduto LA, et al (1981). "A new, simplified and accurate method for determining ejection fraction with two-dimensional echocardiography". Circulation 64 (4): 744-53. PMID 7273375[e]
  5. Erbel R, Schweizer P, Krebs W, Meyer J, Effert S (1984). "Sensitivity and specificity of two-dimensional echocardiography in detection of impaired left ventricular function". Eur. Heart J. 5 (6): 477-89. PMID 6745290[e]
  6. Dokainish H, Nguyen J, Sengupta R, Pillai M, Alam M, Bobek J et al. (2010). "New, simple echocardiographic indexes for the estimation of filling pressure in patients with cardiac disease and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction.". Echocardiography 27 (8): 946-53. DOI:10.1111/j.1540-8175.2010.01177.x. PMID 20849482. Research Blogging.
  7. Cardim N, Fernandez Golfin C, Ferreira D, Aubele A, Toste J, Cobos MA et al. (2011). "Usefulness of a new miniaturized echocardiographic system in outpatient cardiology consultations as an extension of physical examination.". J Am Soc Echocardiogr 24 (2): 117-24. DOI:10.1016/j.echo.2010.09.017. PMID 21074362. Research Blogging.
  8. Liebo MJ, Israel RL, Lillie EO, Smith MR, Rubenson DS, Topol EJ (2011). "Is Pocket Mobile Echocardiography the Next-Generation Stethoscope? A Cross-sectional Comparison of Rapidly Acquired Images With Standard Transthoracic Echocardiography.". Ann Intern Med 155 (1): 33-8. DOI:10.1059/0003-4819-155-1-201107050-00005. PMID 21727291. Research Blogging.