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Cyrillic alphabet

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The Cyrillic alphabet is used for many of the Slavonic languages, including Russian, Ukrainian, Belarussian, Rusyn (Ruthenian), Serbian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, and a number of non-Slavonic languages, primarily those used primarily within the former Soviet Union, including Tatar, Turkmen, Chechen, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Tuvan, and others.

It is traditionally believed to have been developed by Saint Clement of Ohrid, a disciple of Saints Cyril and Methodius. Cyril had developed the Glagolitic alphabet for the Slavonic languages; the Cyrillic bears his name despite having been developed after his death.

It has undergone many changes since its appearance in the 9th century AD; over time, some letters were lost, and some divergence occurred as different languages adapted the alphabet for their own use. In 1918, the Russian alphabet was reformed and several more letters were dropped; the current form of the Russian alphabet is the result of these reforms.

Russian alphabet

Letter Name IPA
А а а a
Б б бэ
B в вэ
Г г гэ
Д д дэ
E e e
Ë ë ë
Ж ж жэ ʒɛ
З з зэ
И и и i
Й й и крáткое (short i) i 'kratkɔjɛ
К к кa ka
Л л эль ɛlʲ
М м эм ɛm
Н н эн ɛn
О о o ɔ
П п пэ
Р р эp ɛr
C c эc ɛs
Т т тэ
У у y u
Ф ф эф ɛf
Х х хa χa
Ц ц цэ tsɛ
Ч ч чe tʄe
Ш ш шa ʃa
Щ щ щa ʄtʄa
Ъ ъ твёрдый знак (hard sign) tvɔrdi ʒnak
Ы ы ы i
Ь ь мягкий знак (soft sign) mjagki ʒnak
Э э э оборóтнoe (reversed e) ɛ ɔbɔr'ɔtnɔjɛ
Ю ю ю ju
Я я я ja