Cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor

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Cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors are defined as "a subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for cyclooxygenase-2".[1]

Pharmacology

The benefit of selectivity for the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme is that analgesia occurs while gastrointestinal complications due to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by cyclooxygenase-1 in the gastrointestinal mucosa are reduced.[2]

Selective COX-2 inhibition may suppress antiplatelet and vasodilatory effects from endothelial cell synthesis of prostacyclin.[2] This leaves vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, and thrombosis from platelet thromboxane A2 mediated by COX-1 intact.[2]

Medical uses

Rofecoxib was voluntarily withdrawn from the market by Merck & Co in September, 2004 due to increased cardiovascular complications.[3]

Celecoxib remains marketed and according to the Food and Drug Administration is indicated for the treatment of acute pain, various types of arthritis, dysmenorrhea, and "to reduce the number of adenomatous colorectal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis".[4]

References

  1. National Library of Medicine. Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors. Retrieved on 2007-11-18.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Graham DJ (2006). "COX-2 inhibitors, other NSAIDs, and cardiovascular risk: the seduction of common sense". JAMA 296 (13): 1653–6. DOI:10.1001/jama.296.13.jed60058. PMID 16968830. Research Blogging.
  3. FDA Issues Public Health Advisory on Vioxx as its Manufacturer Voluntarily Recalls the Product (2004). Retrieved on 2007-11-18.
  4. Celebrex (Celecoxib) capsule (2007). Retrieved on 2007-11-18.