From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
- Earth science : The study of the components and processes of the planet Earth.
- Engineering : The profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences gained by study, experience and practice is applied with judgment to develop ways to economically use the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind.
- Chemistry : The science of matter, or of the electrical or electrostatical interactions of matter.
- Geology : The scientific study of the structure and composition of the earth's crust and its changes over time.
- Mining engineering : A discipline of engineering that involves the practice, science and technology of extracting mineral deposits safely and for a profit.
- Civil engineering : A broad field of engineering dealing with the design, construction, and maintenance of fixed structures, including roads, buildings, airports, tunnels, dams, bridges, and water supply and sewage systems.
- Coal mining : A term that encompasses the various methods used to extract the carbon-containing rock called coal from the ground.
- Combustion : A sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames.
- Conventional coal-fired power plant : An industrial plant which produces electricity by burning of coal and air in a steam generator that heats water to produce high pressure steam which then flows through a series of steam turbines that spin an electrical generator to generate electricity.
- Fossil fuels : Fossil fuels are substances having a high percentage of carbon and hydrocarbons that were formed by the decay of biomass and other dead organisms over a time period of millions of years, the most common being coal, natural gas, fuel oil and various hydrocarbon gases and liquids derived from natural gas and petroleum crude oil.
- Heat of combustion : The energy released as heat when a substance undergoes complete combustion with oxygen.
- Industrial Revolution : A period of major economic transformation in Britain from the 1750s to the 1830s, characterized by the growth of a new system comprising factories, railroads, coal mining and business enterprises using new technologies.
- Mine (resource exploitation) : A place where valuable material is extracted from the Earth.