Bariatric surgery/Bibliography

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A list of key readings about Bariatric surgery.
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Review Articles

Rosen D. J. & Pomp A.(2009) Gastrointestinal Hormones and their Relationship to Bariatric Surgery. Bariatric Times.

Olivan B. et al. (2009) Effect of Weight Loss by Diet or Gastric Bypass Surgery on Peptide YY3-36 Levels. Annals of Surgery 249:948-953.

Ashrafian, H. Le roux, C. " Metabolic surgery and gut hormones- A review of bariatric entero-humoral modulation" Physiology and behaviour. (2009) 620-631. A fantastic up to date review article reporting the effects of how batiatric surgury modulates the gut hormones. Please click [1] for a direct link.

Shah M et al. (2006) Long-Term Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Body Weight, Comorbidities, and Nutritional Status. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 91: 4223-4231 (RYGB and GB surgeries lead to substantial weight loss in individuals with morbid obesity. However, significant weight regain occurs over the long term, and according to the only well-designed prospective controlled study, the improvement in comorbidities associated with weight loss mitigates in the long term on weight regain.)

Greenstein RJ et al. (1994) Bariatric Surgery vs Conventional Dieting in the Morbidly Obese. Obesity Surgery 4: 16-23 (Weight loss and psychosocial events have been compared between low calorie conventional diet (n = 11) or following obesity surgery (n = 17)...After surgery significantly less hunger was experienced... and less will-power was required to stop eating. More dieters stopped eating because of ‘figure and health’... whereas postoperative patients stopped due to vomit avoidance)

Hsu LKG et al. (1998) Nonsurgical Factors That Influence the Outcome of Bariatric Surgery: A Review. Psychosomatic Medicine 60:338-346 (The objective of this study is to present a review of the outcome of bariatric surgery in three areas: weight loss and improvement in health status, changes in eating behavior, and psychosocial adjustment... Factors leading to poor outcome of bariatric surgery, such as binge eating and lowered energy metabolism, should be studied to improve patient selection and outcome. Longitudinal studies to examine the long-term outcome of bariatric surgery and the prognostic indicators are needed.)

Le Roux CW et al. (2006) Gut Hormone Profiles Following Bariatric Surgery Favor an Anorectic State, Facilitate Weight Loss, and Improve Metabolic Parameters. Ann Surg. 243: 108–114. (We examined meal-stimulated responses of insulin, ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) in humans and rodents following different bariatric surgical techniques... exogenous PYY reduced food intake and blockade of endogenous PYY increased food intake. Thus, higher plasma PYY following JIB may contribute to reduced food intake and contribute to weight loss.)

Buchwald, H.; Avidor, Y.; Braunwald, E. et al. (2004). "Bariatric Surgery: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". JAMA 292(14):1724-1737 ("Bariatric surgery in morbidly obese individuals reverses, eliminates, or significantly ameliorates diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and obstructive sleep apnea. These benefits occur in the majority of patients who undergo surgery")

Cummings, E. David et al. (2002). "Plasma Ghrelin Levels after Diet Induced Weight Loss or Gastric Bypass Surger". N. Engl J. Med. 346:1623-1630 ("If circulating ghrelin participates in long-term regulation of body weight, its level should increase with weight loss as part of the compensatory response to an energy deficit. In contrast, gastric bypass may disrupt ghrelin secretion by isolating ghrelin-producing cells from direct contact with ingested nutrients, which normally regulate ghrelin levels, and this effect may contribute to the efficacy of the procedure in reducing weight")

Deitel, M., Shikora, S.A. (2002). The development of the surgical treatment of morbid obesity. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 21 (5): 365–371. ('Conservative medical therapies... generally fail to sustain weight loss. Thus, surgical operations have evolved which are based on gastric restriction and/or malabsorption. All operations may have complications, but these occur in a very small percent. There is evidence that even modest to moderate weight loss in these individuals has significant medical benefit.')

Elder, K. A., Wolfe, B.M. (2007). Bariatric surgery: A review of procedures and outcomes. Gastroenterology 132: 2252-2271. ("This review will summarize historic and contemporary bariatric surgical techniques, including gastric bypass, laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, and biliopancreatic diversion. Given the accumulating evidence that bariatric surgery is efficacious in producing significant and durable weight loss, improving obesity-related comorbidities, and extending survival... healthcare system should examine ways to improve access to this treatment for obesity.")

Frige', F. et al. (2009). "Batriatic Surgery in Obesity: Changes of Glucose & Lipid Metabolism Correlate with Changes of Fat Mass". Nutrition, Metabolism, & Cardiovascular Diseases 19:198-204 ("Both BIBP [biliary intestinal bypass] and LAGB [laporoscopic gastric binding] were highly effective in reducing BMI, with BIBP superior to LAGB in reducing FM [fat mass] but not FFM [fat free mass]. Metabolic effects were mostly proportional to FM decrease but not to FFM decrease")

Holdstock, C. et al. (2003). "Ghrelin and Adipose Tissue Regulatory Peptides: Effect of Gastric Bypass Surgery in Obese Humans". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism" 88(7):3177-3183 ("Ghrelin levels in rats have been reported to be 80% lower after fundectomy and gastrectomy, and gastrectomy patients experienced a 65% decrease, demonstrating the stomach as the major source of circulating ghrelin. A recent study reported that ghrelin levels were lower in five gastric bypass surgery patients than in five BMI-matched obese subjects, who had completed a 6-month dietary weight loss program. The low levels of ghrelin in the five RYGBP patients made the authors suggest that the disconnection of the stomach had led to hypoghrelinemia and speculate that the hypoghrelinemia would lessen appetite and improve the outcome of RYGBP")

Korner, J. et al. (2005). "Effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery on Fasting & Postprandial Concentrations of Plasma Ghrelin, Peptide YY, & Insulin". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 90(1):359-365 ("Fasting ghrelin concentrations have been shown to decrease further after RYGB, compared with either preoperative levels in prospective studies or with nonsurgical obese controls in cross-sectional studies")

Polyzogopoulou, E. V. et al. (2003). "Restoration of Euglycaemia and Normal Acute Insulin Response to Glucose in Obese Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes following Bariatric Surgery". Diabetes 52:1098-1103 ("Although weight loss can be achieved by low-calorie diet, exercise, behavior modification, and medical treatment, late weight gain has been an almost universal problem. Conversely Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) maintains a weight loss of ~33% of body weight for >10 years, a result associated with normalization of glucose levels in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes, in the vast majority of the cases")