From Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium
- See also changes related to Artillery, or pages that link to Artillery or to this page or whose text .
- Military : The standing armed forces of a country, that are directed by the national government and are tasked with that nation's defense.
- Combined arms : Military actions that involve the coordinated effort of different types of ground troops (e.g., infantry, artillery, engineers) or different military services (e.g., Army and Air Force)
- Explosives : Explosive agent; a compound or mixture susceptible of a rapid chemical reaction, as gunpowder, or nitroglycerin.
- Kinetic fires : Effects of military systems that cause damage by physical forces such as impact, explosion or heat
- Nonkinetic fires : In the newer military usage of "fires" as anything that interferes with the enemy, systems whose effects do not primarily involve physical damage, such as electronic warfare, concealing smoke, or attacks on computer network software
Command and control
- Forward observer : An individual or team, specializing in artillery, who accompanies ground troops and directs indirect fire artillery in support of those ground troops
- Controlling close support to ground forces : Doctrine for deconflicting and activelu controlling all forms of kinetic and nonkinetic fires support to troops close enough to the enemy that there is a significant danger of fratricide or degrading friendly capabilities
- Special reconnaissance : Also known as SR, missions deep in denied areas, conducted by special operations personnel. They may be in or out of uniform. While SR units may direct air, missile, or artillery strikes, they strive to stay undetected.
- Naval Fire Control System : Also known as the AN/SYQ-27, this is a system for assisting U.S. Navy and NATO gunfire support ashore, taking and deconflicting calls for fires, and passing signals to the actual gun system.
- Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System : A U.S. Army and Marine artillery fire control system that cooperates with Navy and Air Force fire control systems, as well as British, French, Italian and German artillery systems.
- Enhanced Position Location Reporting System : A portable or vehicle-mounted U.S. Army device that transmits friendly force positions for command and control, fires with precision-guided munitions, and logistical support
- Joint Tactical Information Distribution System : The primary communications system used for sharing tactical information internally, and among NATO, Australia, and other U.S. allies
Missions and methods
- Direct fire : A military term for battlefield weapons fired with a direct line of sight on their target; projectile weapons actually fire in a parabolic trajectory that approximates a straight line for short distances
- Indirect fire : Weapons fire that is fired in an arc such that the projectile rises above the target elevation and descends to hit the target
- Target acquisition : The detection, identification, and location of a target in sufficient detail to permit the effective employment of weapons.
- Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition Squadron (Brigade Combat Team) : As part of the restructuring of the United States Army into Brigade Combat Teams is a very substantial increase in intelligence, reconnaissance and related surveillance capability; this unit provides enhanced field scouting capability, complementing the Military Intelligence Company's analytic tools and access to higher-echelon systems; both are under the command of the Brigade Intelligence Officer
- Counterbattery : Defense against enemy artillery involving identifying the point of origin of hostile fire and directing lethal force against it
- Counter-rocket, artillery and mortar : Military equipment and techniques to detect unguided rockets, artillery shells, and mortar rounds in flight, warn friendly forces that are threatened, and, with new methods, intercept and destroy the projectiles before they can do damage
- Suppressive fire : Weapons fire directed at troops or another weapons system, not necessarily to destroy it, but to degrade its performance below the level needed to fulfill its mission objectives
- Direct support : "A [military] mission requiring a force to support another specific force and authorizing it to answer directly to the supported force’s request for assistance." (U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff)
- General support : A relationship between military units, in which the supported unit does not have operational control of the supporting unit, but must have its requests either accepted by the supporting unit or approved by a common headquarters
- Anti-aircraft artillery : A general term for guns that can elevate to high angles and shoot accurately at aircraft, using visual, electro-optical, or radar guidance.
- Creeping barrage : Artillery fire directed just ahead of advancing friendly forces, with the intent of suppressing the defense as one's own forces took direct action against it. Introduced in the First World War, there was a very high incidence of both friendly fire and too-late fire, until precision time synchronization and fire control were developed.
- Naval guns and gunnery : Artillery weapons on ships, and techniques and devices for aiming them.
- Laser rangefinder : A device, analogous to radar but using light rather than radio waves, which measures the distance to an object of interest.
- Laser designator : A device that puts a distinctive, usually invisible, pattern of laser energy on an object, for purposes such as designating the target of a laser-guided bomb
- Gun : Either a general term for firearm, or a type of artillery with a relatively long barrel with respect to caliber, giving the projectile a fairly flat trajectory
- Howitzer : An artillery piece with a medium ratio between barrel length and diameter; longer than a mortar and shorter than a gun; the most common form of modern cannon
- Mortar : A piece of artillery, sometimes light enough to be carried by infantry, which has a short barrel length relative to the shell caliber, and fires in a high indirect trajectory, often desirable to fire over obstacles.
- Unguided rocket : A form of artillery weapon that uses a rocket motor to propel a warhead at a target, using no guidance once launched
- Guided missile : A weapon that flies through air or space, under its own power, which adjusts its course to hit its target.
- Warhead : That part of a military weapon, which actively moves to strike a target, that causes the desired destructive effect on the target
- Precision-guided munition : A powered or unpowered weapon that adjusts its flight path to hit a specific target, with a circular error probability in the low number of meters, often less than the radius of destruction
- Guided shell : A piece of artillery ammunition that can alter its course after being fired.
- Krasnopol guided shell : Russian 152 and 155mm laser-guided artillery shell
- M712 Copperhead : First operational guided shell for 155mm howitzers; laser-guided; effective but prohibitively expensive; used in Gulf War
- M982 Excalibur : Guided shell for 155mm howitzers; lower cost and more modern than the M712 Copperhead; rocket-assisted for extended range and with GPS/INS guidance
- 57mm naval gun : An increasingly common light naval dual-purpose gun; modern versions are usually full automatic and thus can deliver a volume of fire equivalent to guns of larger caliber
- 60mm mortar : Most frequent caliber for a light infantry support mortar; once broken into its main pieces, reasonably portable in backpacks
- 81mm mortar : The most common medium mortar used in direct support of infantry, providing indirect fire under the immediate control of battalion or company commanders; also 82mm variant
- 105mm howitzer : Common caliber for light howitzers; principally used for specialized applications where weight is critical, such as aircraft use on the AC-130 or wheeled fire support vehicles
- 120mm mortar : Most common indirect fire heavy weapon organic to infantry units
- 5" naval gun : The U.S. Navy standard medium naval gun series, used by many navies
- 130mm gun : An older piece of Soviet-designed artillery, which outranged most light (105mm) and medium 155mm howitzers of its time
- 155mm howitzer : Implemented in self-propelled or lightweight towed versions, this howitzer size, with slight variations in caliber, is the world's most common medium artillery type
- Katyusha rocket : Specifically a Soviet Second World War area bombardment unguided rocket fired from truck-mounted multiple rocket launchers; generic term for 120-130mm rockets launched either in salvos or from improvised single launchers; succeeded by GRAD rocket
- 8" howitzer : Usually considered the most accurate of howitzers, gradually was displaced, due to its weight and size, by improved 155mm howitzers and guided missiles; towed and self-propelled (SP) versions; U.S. SP version shared chassis with 175mm gun
- 8" naval gun : A heavy naval gun, the point of reference for a heavy cruiser main battery as defined by the Washington Naval Treaty; often considered the heaviest practical caliber for naval gunfire support
- 175mm gun : Vietnam-era long-range U.S. field artillery rifle, outranging Soviet 130mm gun; longer range but smaller shell than 8" howitzer; shared chassis with U.S. 8" howitzer; displaced by guided missiles
- 280mm gun : Add brief definition or description
- Mark 19 (nuclear weapon) : An improved derivative of the W9 nuclear artillery shell, 15-20 kiloton yield
- 280mm naval gun : German naval gun caliber used on "pocket battleships" such as Lützow-class (e.g., ), and, in an improved version, battlecruisers of the Scharnhorst-class; later a caliber for the U.S. "atomic cannon" on land
- M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System : A fully-tracked artillery firing platform that carries two munitions pods, containing either six rockets or short-range surface-to-surface missiles, or one MGM-140 ATACMS tactical ballistic missile
- 16"-50 caliber MK 7 naval gun : Main battery guns of the battleships of the U.S. Navy's Iowa-class
- Paris Gun : Add brief definition or description
- 420mm howitzer : Add brief definition or description
- Forward air controller : An individual or team, knowledgeable in both ground and air warfare, who coordinates close air support for a ground unit to which they are responsible
- Fort Sill : Site of the U.S. Army Artillery Center and School
- Deconfliction : The process of avoiding mutual interference, or destruction, among resources under one's control
- Battlefield air interdiction : Air warfare intended to support ground troops, not by direct firepower but interfering with enemy supplies, reinforcements and communications
- Air warfare planning : The set of doctrines and procedures for carrying out all types of air warfare, as an integrated whole
- Brigade Combat Team : Under the restructuring of the United States Army, the main independent tactical unit, replacing the division 105mm and 155mm howitzers principally assigned here
- Fires brigade : Under the restructuring of the United States Army, these units were formed to take the division artillery assets that were not decentralized to the Brigade Combat Teams