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Arab Spring/Timelines

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A timeline (or several) relating to Arab Spring.

Contents

2010

December

19. Tunisia. Riots in a small Tunisian town after Mohamed Bouazizi set fire to himself in protest[1]

24. Police shoot dead a young protester in Bouziane, south of Tunis

27. Mass rioting in Tunis[2]

2011

January

5. Algeria. Food price riots in Algerian cities[3]

14. Jordan. Peaceful protests in Amman.

15. Tunisia. President Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali takes refuge in Saudi Arabia[4]

16. Egypt. Egyptian protester sets himself on fire[5]

22. Jordan. Protests about economic policy - calls for the government to resign[6].

23. Yemen. Yemen protester arrested[7]

24. Lebanon. Lebanon's "Day of Rage"[8]

27. Egypt. Protests escalate in Cairo, Suez and other cities[9]

31. Jordan. The King dismisses the Cabinet and appoints a new Prime Minister[10]

RETURN TO TOP

February

2. Yemen. Protests. President Saleh promises to step down in 2013

11. Egypt. President Hosni Mubarak resigns[11]

14. Bahrain

15. Libya. 84 killed in growing unrest[12]

20. Morocco. In response to a “February 20 Movement for Change” that began on Facebook, more than 10,000 people turned out in cities across the country to call for democratic change, lower food prices, freedom for Islamist prisoners, rights for Berbers and a variety of causes, including pan-Arab nationalism[13].

22. Bahrain. Thousands join anti-government rally[14].

23. Libya . Benghazi is in the hands of the rebels[15]

26.. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1970 imposes an embargo on the supply of arms to Libya and targeted sanctions on key regime figures[16].oo

26. Oman.

RETURN TO TOP

March

8 Libya. The Organisation of the Islamic Conference condemns the repression, violence and intimidation used by the government of Libya, describing it as a humanitarian tragedy which contravenes Islamic values, human rights and international humanitarian law.

12 Libya The Arab League agrees to ask the UN Security Council to impose a no-fly-zone in Libya[17]

15. Syria. Protests in Damascus and Aleppo calling for democratic reforms and the release of all political prisoners[18].

17. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 authorises member nations to "to take all necessary measures to protect civilians under threat of attack in the country, including Benghazi, while excluding a foreign occupation force of any form on any part of Libyan territory"[19].

19. Libya. Air defence targets attacked from the air by US, UK and French forces[20].

20. Egypt. Egypt votes to adopt constitutional changes including early election [21].

21. Yemen. Top Yemeni general, Ali Mohsen, backs opposition[22]

23. Libya. US Rear Admiral Gerard Hueber, chief of staff of Joint Task Force Odyssey Dawn, reports that air strikes appear to have destroyed the country's air force[23].

29. Libya. London Conference on Libya[24] agrees to set up a Contact Group on Libya "to provide leadership and overall political direction to the international effort in close coordination with the UN, AU, Arab League, OIC, and EU" [25]

30. Egypt The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces announces a provisional constitution, including the conduct of parliamentary elections[26] .

31. NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) assumes sole command of of international air operations over Libya under United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1970 and 1973 (Operation Unified Protector)[27].

April

1. Libya. US Department of Defense announces that the US is ending its air combat role in Libya [28]

11 Yemen. Yemen's opposition rejects a Gulf Cooperation Council initiative for President Saleh to step down because it appears to offer him immunity from prosecution. President Saleh welcomes the plan[29].

13. Libya. First meeting of the Contact Group on Libya[30] calls for a political process which allows Libyans to choose their own future and agrees upon the need for humanitarian assistance and longer term support for the Libyan people.

15. Algeria. President Bouteflika promises to amend the constitution to 'strengthen democracy'

RETURN TO TOP

May

5. Libya. Second meeting of the Contact Group on Libya[31]

27. G8 leaders launch the Deauville Partnership[32] and offer to support Arab Spring transitions by pledging $20bn in loans and aid to Middle East countries[33]

June

7. Tunisia. Election postponed until 23 October[34].

6. Libya. Third Meeting of the International Contact Group on Libya[35]

27. Libya. France confirms that it has supplied small arms to the Libyan rebels[36].

29. Egypt. Cairo street clashes leave more than 1,000 injured[37]

RETURN TO TOP

July

1st. Morocco Referendum on constitutional reforms proposed by King Mohammed VI[38]

15. Libya, USA formally recognises Libya’s the National Transitional Council[1], Libya's main opposition group, as the country’s legitimate government.

Fourth meeting of the Libya Contact Group[39] agrees to deal with the Libyan National Transitional Council as the "legitimate governing authority in Libya"

28. Libya, UK government recognises the National Transitional Council as Libya's "sole governmental authority."

The chief of staff of the rebel military forces, General Abdel Fattah Younis, is killed by gunmen.

29. Syria. Army defectors create the Free Syrian Army[40]

31. Syria. Syrian army tanks storm the rebel-held city of Hama after besieging it for nearly a month[41].

August

12. Libya, The National Transition Council issues a "Draft Constitutional Charter for the Transition Stage (full text[42])

13. Libya. Rebel forces reach Zawiyah, 50 km (30 miles) west of Tripoli on the coast, enabling them to halt food and fuel supplies from Tunisia to Gaddafi's stronghold in the capital[43].

21 Libya. Rebel forces enter Tripoli [44]

24 Libya. Fall of Tripoli

25. Libya. Fifth meeting of the Libya Contact Group[45] [46]

26. Libya. The National Transition Council moves to Tripoli and prepares to take over the government of Libya[47]

30. Libya. Gaddafi family members take refuge in Algeria[48]

30. Yemen. President agrees to hold presidential election[49].

RETURN TO TOP

September

1. Libya. "Friends of Libya" conference[50] National Transitional Council's Mustafa Abdel Jalil promises a new constitution and elections within 18 months.

Russia recognises Libya's National Transition Council[51]

6. Libya. Large convoy arrives in Niger from Libya[52].

10 International Financial Institutions. Joint declaration[53] on financing the Deauville Partnership.

11 Libya. All of Libya is held by National Transitional Council supporters, except for the towns of Bani Wald, Sirte, Jufra, and Subha (see map[54]).

13 Libya. China recognises Libya's National Transitional Council[55]

15. Syria. Syrian National Council of about 140 people is formed to present a united front against the Assad government following talks in Istanbul[56][57]

19 Yemen. Protesters seize military base[58]

20 Deauville Partnership. Foreign Affairs Ministers’ Meeting Communiqué[59]

22 Yemen. President Saleh returns after 3 month absence, and calls for a truce[60]

25 Saudi Arabia. King Abdulla announces that Saudi women are to have the right to join the advisory Shura Council (consultative assembly) as full members, and vote in future municipal elections[61].

27 Egypt. Polls are to be held in three stages between November 28 and January 10 with first session of new house scheduled for March 17[62].

29 Yemen. Heavy fighting in the capital[63]

RETURN TO TOP

October

09 Syria. Iraq offers support to Assad's Syria[64].

10 Egypt. Protesters against the destruction of a Coptic church are fired on by government forces : 24 die and over 300 are injured[65].

15 Syria. The government news agency announces the appointment of a committee to prepare a draft constitution[66].

20 Libya. The death of Gaddafi and the fall of Sirte[67]

21 Yemen. The UN Security Council "Strongly condemns the continued human rights violations by the Yemeni authorities, such as the excessive use of force against peaceful protesters as well as the acts of violence, use of force, and human rights abuses perpetrated by other actors, and stresses that all those responsible for violence, human rights violations and abuses should be held accountable."[68].

23 Tunisia. The first free election in decades[69]

23 Libya The civil war is formally declared over[70].

31 Libya. Abdurrahim El Keib elected Interim Prime Minister[71]

November

2 Syria. Government accepts Arab League peace plan[72].

3 Syria. Following Syria's persistent violations of the terms of the Arab League peace plan, it is suspended from membership of the League and sanctions against it are called for [73].

16 Syria. Army defectors attack Damascus military base [74].

19 Egypt. Two die in clashes between the police and demonstrators demanding immediate elections[75].

21 Tunisia. Announcement of the composition of the new coalition government[76]

23 Syria. The UN General Assembly Human Rights Committee condemns human rights violations by the Syrian authorities [77]

23 Yemen. President Ali Abdullah Saleh hands over power to his deputy, Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi[78]

27 Morocco Parliamentary election. Moderate Islamist Justice and Development Party wins 107 out of 395 seats, and its coalition partner, the nationalist Istiqlal party, comes second, with 60 seats[79].

30 Syria Turkey imposes severe economic sanctions[80]

December

7 Egypt The Muslim Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party wins 34 individual seats of the 45 it contested in the first run-off vote of the election.

16 Egypt At least three killed and more than 250 wounded in Cairo as troops fight demonstrators in worst violence since Egypt began the election process.

2012

January

23 Egypt First meeting of new parliament[81]

February

23 Egypt Freedom and Justice Party wins 58.8% of seats in the Shura (upper house[82]) [83].

March

22 Mali A military coup removes the existing government on the grounds that it has not adequately supported the soldiers fighting the northern rebels[84].

April

6 Mali Tuareg rebels in the West African city of Timbuktu unilaterally declare their independence from Mali and announce the birth of a new nation called Azawad[85].

7 Mali Mali coup leaders agree to stand down as part of an ECOWAS deal. Under the terms of transition plan, military rulers will cede power to the parliamentary speaker, Diouncounda Traore, who as interim president will oversee a timetable for elections [86].

14 Syria The United Nations Security Council endorses Kofi Annan's six-point plan[87] for the resolution of the conflict[88].

21 Syria The United Nations Security Council condemns violations of human rights in Syria and reiterates its call for the implementation of the six-point plan[89].

26 Syria United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemns continuing violence in Syria[90]

28 Egypt The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) and the political parties agree on the main criteria by which the constituent assembly (tasked with drafting Egypt's new constitution) will be formed[91].

May

23/4 Egypt First round of presidential election. Result: Mohamed Morsi 24.9% Ahmed Shafiq 24.5%.

28 Syria The United Nations Security Council condemns the Government of Syria for the massacre at El Houleh [92]

June

14 Egypt The Supreme Court declares the parliamentary election to have been unconstitutional, deciding that one third of the seats were illegitimate.

17 Egypt The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces publishes a revised constitutional declaration[93] which gives it control over legislation and the budget.

18 Egypt The Muslim League presidential candidate Mohamed Morsi claims victory.

24 Egypt Mohamed Morsi is declared President[94].

July

07 Libya Parliamentary elections: 39 out of 80 seats reserved for political parties are won by the National Forces Alliance, which is a broadly liberal coalition led by Mahmoud Jibril and 17 by the Muslim Brotherhood[95]
09 Egypt Parliament meets briefly to consider the Supreme Court ruling [96].

August

02 Egypt: President Morsi appoints Hisham Qandil as Prime Minister and Hussein Tantawi (former interim head of state) as defence Minister[97].
06 Syria: Prime Minister Riad Hijab defects[98]
12 Egypt: President Morsi dismisses defence minister, Field Marshal Hussein Tantawi, and several senior generals appointed Mahmoud Mekki, as vice-president, and cancels constitutional amendments issued by the military restricting presidential powers.

September

12 Libya Members of Libya's national assembly have elected Deputy Prime Minister Mustafa Abu Shagur as the country's next prime minister[99].
12 Libya A group of armed Islamists burned down the American Embassy in Benghazi, killing the ambassador and three of his colleagues. The attack was a protest against an amateur film that ridiculed the Prophet Muhammad[100].
21 Libya Protesters and police storm the headquarters of the armed Islamist group Ansar al-Sharia, which is suspected of involvement in an attack on the US consulate in the city[101].
23 Libya The Libyan army orders militias to leave state and military premises in Tripoli or be ejected by force[102]

October

12 Mali Security Council resolution 2071 (2012), concerning the possible deployment of an international military force to assist the Malian armed forces in recovering the occupied regions in the north of the country[103].

24 Mali The African Union announces that it is working with the Malian authorities, the Economic Community of West African States, the United Nations, the European Union and other partners on the joint planning for the early deployment of an African-led international force to help Mali recover the occupied territories in the North [104]

November

20 Egypt IMF Reaches Staff-Level Agreement with Egypt on a US$4.8 Billion Stand-By Arrangement[105].
21 Egypt President Morsi brokers ceasefire between Israel and Hamas over Gaza conflict[106]
22 Egypt President Morsi issues a decree claiming unchallengeable judicial and legislative powers [107], triggering widespread protests[108]
29 Mali Report of the UN Secretary General recommends that a military operation may be required as a last resort to deal with the hard-line extremist and criminal elements in the north. [109]

December

5 Egypt: 5 die in clashes between supporters and opponents of President Morsi[110]

8 Egypt: The army calls for dialogue to resolve a crisis over President Mohammed Morsi's new powers, warning it will intervene to stop Egypt going into "a dark tunnel". [111][112]
President Morsi rescinds his decree of 22 November but insists that the referendum on the constitution will go ahead as scheduled.[113]

11 Syria The US State Department designates the Syrian rebel group, the al-Nusrah Front, as a terrorist organisation and an alias for al-Qa'ida[114].

20 Mali Security Council Resolution 2085 authorises the deployment of an African-led International Support Mission in Mali to contribute to the rebuilding of the capacity of the Mali's defence forces, and to help them to recover control of the areas in the north of Mali that are now under the control of terrorists and armed extremists [115].

23 Egypt In a national referendum 64 per cent of voters approve the draft constitution [116]

2013

January

10 Mali UN Security Council declares that the situation "constitutes a direct threat to international peace and security" and calls upon Member States to provide assistance to the Malian Defence and Security Forces in order to reduce the threat posed by terrorist organisations and associated groups. [117]

11 Mali France sends a military force to Mali in response to a request from its President[118].

16 Algeria A military operation to free hostages taken at an internationally-manned oil installation at Tigantourine, near In Amenas deep in the Sahara desert results in 69 deaths including at least 39 of the hostages [119]

28 Mali French and Malian soldiers capture Timbuktu [120]

February

1 Egypt Continuing army attacks against anti-Morsi rallies [121]

6 Tunisia Opposition leader Chokri Belaid is shot dead, provoking violent protests. The Prime Minister announces the replacement of the existing government by a government of technocrats and the calling of an early election [122]

11 Egypt Shokri Ibrahim Abdel Karim, a professor of Islamic jurisprudence at Al-Azhar University, is elected as Egypt’s 19th Grand Mufti, defeating the candidate of the Muslim Brotherhood. [123].

18 Egypt President Morsi approves appointment of Grand Mufti[124]

March

07 Egypt Court postpones parliamentary elections [125]
13 Tunisia Parliament approves new government[126]

References

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